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WITH FIFTY PLATES and 242 Text-figures.




PART I. (No. 200). (Issued 17th April, 1925.)

Pages. Presidential Address, delivered at the Fiftieth Annual Meeting, 25th MERE, USA, ly 1k, Jal, (Cranes, IMIG 216 o0 co oo o8 04 | oc i-xxxii Hlections and Announcements Mes MERE P ere Later) [DRG Ree Wepee hen MLE XXXiii 1kl@m, Weer Iles Saas oo 5650 oo 60 06 50 oo on v5 2CoghpoS<anl

PART II. (No. 201). (Issued 1st July, 1925.)

The Loranthaceae of Australia. Part vi. By W. F. Blakely. (Plates i-xii.) sere ML Ag: : ph 1-24 Notes on the Occurrence of Glendonites and iciacial Eeaticen: in Wener Marine Beds at Ulladulla, N.S.W. By Ida A. Brown, B.Sc. (Plates xiv-xv; and two Text-figures. ) oe 25-31 On a Remarkable Modification of the Highth Abdominal Gabiveint in Lindera tessalatella, with a Description of the Male and Female Genitalia. By Alfred Philpott. (Communicated by Mr. E. C.

AN AKEWS:)) ACNine, Rext-eunes.)/ S55 Te, SRRROe. of) Sees ce 382-34 Notes on Australian Diptera. No. v. By J. R. Malloch. (Communicated by Dr. EH. W. Ferguson.) .. .. 35-46

A Few Observations on the Geology Auta Gcogranhy. of Month: west ana Desert Basins, Western Australia. By Frederick G. Clapp. (Communicated by Professor Sir T. W. Edgeworth David.) (Plates

xvi-xix; and five Text-figures. ) Ae Roa) § 47-66 The Geology ee Petrography of the Glarencetowns Paterschi. District.

Part iii. A Study of the Main Glacial Beds at Seaham. By G..D.

Osborne, B.Sc. (Plate xiii; and one Text-figure.) .. .. .. .. .. 67-79 Notes on Australian Diptera. No. vi. By J. R. Malloch. (Communicated

by Dr. E. W. Ferguson.) (Twelve Text-figures. ) ee Bier he 80-97

Contributions to the Cytology and Phylogeny of the Sinnarsceous Nisae

i. The Cytology of the Gametangia of Codium tomentosum (Stack.).

By May M. Williams, B.Sc., Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in

Botany. (Forty-two Text-figures. ) ugk RUE Rey mF AUIYA Li Use aeron Man cpacrt cre 98-111 The Geology and Petrography of the Clarencetown-Paterson District.

Part iv. Petrography. By G. D. Osborne, B.Sc., Linnean Macleay

Fellow of the Society in Geology. (Plate xxiii.) .. .. .. .. .. 112-138 Australian Mydaidae (Diptera). By G. H. Hardy. (Two Text-figures.) 139-144 An Ecological Study of the Flora of Mount Wilson. Part ii. The

HKucalyptus Forests. By Arthur H. K. Petrie. (Plates xx-xxii; and

four Text-figures. ) SeMepeSeO etic BPEL Avec id aN Denti ed se ty i eden eel UY ayo) L093 Burrowing Habits of Ornithor ymonust ‘By Harry, BUrEell ©oMeZise es) hOd-td0


PART III. (No. 202). (Issued loth September, 1925.)

New Genera and Species (mostly Australasian) of Blattidae, with Notes, and some Remarks on Tepper’s Types. By Eland Shaw, M.R.C.S., F.E.S. (Thirty-three Text-figures. ) Ae ue

Fossil Plants from the Narrabeen Stage of ine Hamesbuny Saree By A. B. Walkom, D.Sc. (Plates xxiv-xxxi, and one Text-figure. )

Revision of the Australian Species of Chrysobothris (Fam. Buprestidae), together with Notes, and Descriptions of New Species of Coleoptera. By H. J. Carter, B.A., F.H.S. (Nine Text-figures. )

Gasteromycetes of Australasia. ii. A Revision of the Genus THLDStONA. By G. H. Cunningham. (Plates xxxiii-xxxv.) Adee:

Two New Species of Callistemon, with Notes on Certain omnes Species. By Edwin Cheel ..

A Comparison of the Male Gonialia of ie Palaeocetidae aah thase of Other Lepidoptera Homoneura. By John R. Hyer. (Communicated by A. J. Turner, M.D., F.E.S.) (Twelve Text-figures. ) Altar

The Australian Species of Oncopera (Hepialidae, Lepidoptera). By John R. Hyer and A. J. Turner, M.D., F.H.S. (Plate xxxii.) : ite

On the Tachinid Genus Huthera (Diptera), with Description of Neu Species from Australia, Africa and South America. By Prof. M. Bezzi. (Communicated by Dr. E. W. Ferguson.) (Three Text-figures. )

The Comboyne Plateau: its General Conformation and Flora. By H. C. Chisholm, M.B., Ch.M. (One Text-figure.) AA te) Ee ee

Notes on Species of Pterostylis. By Rev. H. M. R. Rupp, B.A. (Communicated by Mr. EH. Cheel.) (Ten Text-figures.)

PART IV. (No. 2038). (Issued 15th December, 1925.)

Notes on Australian Diptera. No. vii. By J. R. Malloch. (Communicated by Dr. E. W. Ferguson.) (Twenty-three Text-figures. )

The Influence of certain Colloids upon Fermentation. Part ii. By R. Greig-Smith, D.Se., Macleay Bacteriologist to the Society .

The Haematozoa of Australian Marine Teleostei. By I. M. Mackerras, B.Sc., M.B., Ch.M., Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology, and M. J. Mackerras, B.Sc., M.B. (Six Text-figures. )

The Gasteromycetes of Australasia. iii. The Genera Bovista and Bovistella. By G. H. Cunningham. (Plate xxxvii.)

A New Fossil Insect Wing from Triassic Beds near Dee Why, N.S.W. By R. J. Tillyard, M.A., Sc.D. (Cantab.), D.Se. (Sydney), F.R.S., F.N.Z. Inst., F.L.S., F.G.S., F.E.S., C.M.Z.S. (Plate xxxvi and one Text-figure. ) eal aeiusy toes Sata

Notes on Australian Coccidae with Description of New Species. By Walter W. Froggatt, F.L.S. :

The Labial Palpi of Trichophysetis cretacea and Argyria amoenalis. By

Alfred Philpott. (Communicated by Dr. A. J. Turner.) (Two Text- figures. )




225-244 245-258




275-283 284-298



341-358 359-356 367-373 374-377




Pages. Contributions to our Knowledge of the Flora of New South Wales. By W. F. Blakely ee RCO Ot ee Spe, ewe Meiegh Nees | ae LO OOZOSG Two New Species of Silky Lacewings (Family Psychopsidae, Order Neuroptera Planipennia) from Australia. By R. J. Tillyard, M.A., Sc.D. (Cantab.), D.Sc. (Sydney), F.R.S., F.N.Z. Inst., F.L.S., F.G.S., F.E.S., C.M.Z.S. (Plate xxxviii.) att i ociicooO The Anatomy of Lindsaya linearis and Lindsaya micr pombe: By May M. Williams, M.Sc., Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Botany. (Thirty-four Text-figures.) hanger iva Most ake maa Otley (ie! The Development of Two Australian Sponge- Gta Be, Herbert M. Hale. (Plates xxxix-xl, and five Text-figures. ) ae bas tay waa ee £05243 Descriptions of New Species of Australian Coleoptera. Part xviii. By Arthur M. Lea 414-431 The Salinity of Inshore @ceautes Hare of Auetralasiat™ in relation te Fishes. By W. J. Phillipps, F.L.S., and F. J. T. Grigg, M.Sc. (Communicated by Professor H. G. Chapman.) ene Sa aot one See ee Descriptions of New Species of Leaia. By John Mitchell. (Plates xli-xliii. ) -. .. 488-447 Geology of the Milton District N. S.W. By: des A. ferowil, B. Se. (Plates xliv-xlvi.) ae 448-465 A Note on an unusual TPs of isdereuine Mpitheliuri in ees Wolffian Diet of the Dog-fish (Scylliorhinus canicula). By P. D. F. Murray, B.Sc., Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology. (Four Text- figures. ) 466-469 On the Occurrence of BIscenentian in the Scincid Tisard: Dagens entrecasteauzri. By Professor L. Harrison, B.A., B.Se., and Hazel C. Weekes. (Plates xlvii-xlix and three Text-figures. ) PED" ek 470-486 Description of a New Species of Mycetophilidae (Diptera) with Camineus Larvae. By E. W. Ferguson, M.B., Ch.M. (One Text-figure.) . 487-488 The Nemestrinidae (Diptera) of the Australasian Region. By I. M. Mackerras, B.Sc., M.B., Ch.M., Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology. (Plate 1 and seventeen Text-figures. ) 489-561 PART V. (No. 204). (Issued 15th February, 1926.) Abstractsiof Proceedings 2) eo Fes. ae Oe RANE AR Tas a etiexonvLiexl vail Donations and Exchanges ot ea RN OS ie DIN A) oslo eRlydiclxind List of Members See eee RN ihrem ret. PL50s |i: iaiok Mant) ela bron e: pO OVD. Giant MWMGEX way se ok Lee eR Slee sae RON Let i sie lixxocvil



Page. Page. Ancaudellia (Panesthiinae) .. .. 208 Incurviseta (Sapromyzidae) .. .. 324 Australina (Sapromyzidae) .. .. 323 Limnellia (Ephydrinae) Fic) opie) BOIL Australosepsis (Sepsidae) .. .. 314 MaAcreuTHeRA (Huthera) - +. 281 Benjaminella (Botanobiinae) _. 336 Mesotitanidae (Protohemiptera) 376 Chloropella (Chloropinae) .. .. 94 Pseudoleucopis (Ochthiphilinae).. 93 Cyclopsidea (Nemestrinidae) .. 557 Trigonometopsis (Sapromyzidae) 82 Elfridaia (Epilamprinae) cao IB) ANPOOMOCHS (ENNIS) oo 60 of AZ Hppertia (Blattinae) 55 on 6c IIS Ae mOseaSIsS (SSOSICHS) ca oo oo dls Euhippelates (Botanobiinae) so. OO


Page 234, line 19, for bitwmulosus, read bitumulatus Page 291, line 8, for smaller, read larger Page 296, line 38, delete A. longifolia Willd.,


i-xii.—Australian Loranthaceae.

xiii— Geological map of village of Seaham. xiv.—Sketch map of the coast near Ulladulla showing glendonite horizons.

xv.—Glendonites and glacial erratic.

xXvi-xix.—Geology of North-west and Desert Basins, Western Australia. xx-xxii—The Eucalyptus forests at Mount Wilson.

xxiii—Microsections of rocks from Clarencetown-Paterson District. Xxiv-xxxi.—Fossil Plants from the Narrabeen Stage of the Hawkesbury Series.

Xxxii.—Genitalia of species of Oncopera. xxxiii-xxxv.—Species of Tulostoma. Xxxvi.—Mesotitan scullyi, forewing. xxxvii.—Bovista and Bovistella.

Xxxvilii—Psychopsis barnardi and P. maculipennis.

xxxix.—Cryptodromia octodentata.

xl.—Oryptodromia octodentata and Paradromia lateralis.

xli-xliii—New species of Leaia.

xliv.—Geological sketch map of the Milton District.

xlv.—Views of the Milton District.

xlvi.—Microsections of rocks from the Milton District. xlvii-xlix.—Placentation in Lygosoma entrecasteauzi. 1.—Photographs of species of Trichophthalma.

(Plates i—xii.) [Read 25th March, 1925.]

Subgenus DENDROPHTHOE. Petals 5 or 6, united, without basal folds. Filaments not barbed.

Sect. LySsrana. Flowers solitary, binate or in clusters of 3-5, with or without a common peduncle. Corolla usually 6-merous.

i. Leaves terete or nearly so. 1. Flowers 2 cm. long, solitary or in pairs, without a common peduncle. Pedicels

elongated. Leaves usually alternate, single or fascicled ...... 32. L. Murrayi. MLOWersn ese bem, TOME. eis oe eer es oo ine I tee ee var. parviflora. la. Flowers binate, pedicellate, the common peduncle elongated. Leaves opposite, FSi] OT Lali oy ha cesar we eee tics OMe es tae eect tetesote eae ote Ei comaretee 33. L. Mitchellianus. 2. Flowers in pairs or clusters. Common peduncle very short or almost obscure. Leaves firm, somewhat flexuose, acute ................... 34. L. Casuarinae.

ii. Leaves flat. 1. Flowers green at the top, red at the base. Leaves opposite or sometimes

alternate, narrow-oblong, penninerved, 3-8 cm. long ...... 35. L. Hxocarpi.

2, ILeATES Siedler, Oath Gans OMS ssotoosconsccccscccguonouvde (a) var. tenuis. ja. Flowers yellow. Leaves narrow, 3-6 cm. long .......... (0) var. flavescens.

2a. Leaves cuneate-spathulate, venulose, 2-3 cm. long ........ (c) var. venulosa.

1b. Flowers red, 3.5 em. long. Leaves narrow, oblong to falcate-lanceolate. Boe ETT oat Sr De ay ea 7a oes ae A NO eee TR cI ee (d) var. coccineus.

1c. Flowers 2.5 em. long. Leaves spathulate, 6-10 cm. long. (e) var. spathulata.


Inflorescence cymose or subumbellate. Flowers in triads, the central fiower sessile. Style capillary. Apex of ovary prismatic.

1. Leaves broad, oblong to lanceolate, veins reticulate .... 36. UL. dictyophlebus.

Ser. Hudendrophthoe.

Flowers binate, racemose or in axillary clusters. Corolla inflated in the middle. Petals 5, rarely 6.

i. Young shoots and inflorescence glabrous.

1. Flowers in pairs on slender pedicels. Leaves petiolate, alternate, lanceolate DA on ak anne ns at 4 oe ne ia Re OPA een ES eer PN Coreen 37. LL: acacioides.

2. Flowers racemose. Leaves opposite, sessile, cordate .. 38. UL. homoplasticus.

ii. Young shoots and inflorescence pubescent, except in var. glabrescens.

1. Indumentum ferruginous. Racemes 10—20-flowered ...... 39. L. vitellinus. If, IRECEIIES KinniGuhy BIEIROWS sooconabooooohoudaugoddobnuoe’ var. glabrescens.


2. Indumentum hoary-tomentose. Racemes 3—7-flowered. Corolla minutely DUbesceml INSUME!r s...6 sq Gx vis 2 )ete muster eet Macheperepar enews Reena cies re 40. LL. odontocalyx. 2a. Indumentum rufous-cinereous. Corolla glabrous inside ...... var. propria.

Ser. Benthamina.

Flowers red, binate, ferruginous; bracteate pedicels rarely longer than the calyx. Corolla cleft nearly to the base on one side only; petals 5, very short. 1. Leaves ovate to obovate, thick. Buds slender, arcuate, rust-coloured. PREG ie iucsibe Aindeean aba Pace ger en tales ay) a cathogecawanrelte louse hee amen trot tmeite tec leayioe sens 41. L. alyxifolius.

Subgenus DENDROPHTHOE Blume. Blume, Fl. Javae, 1829, 13; Mart., Flora, 1830, 109; Engl. in Engl. et Prantl, Pflanzenfam., Nachtr. ii, iv, 1897, 129.

Petals, 5 or 6, united, without basal folds. Filaments not barbed.

Sect. Lystana (Van Tiegh.).

Engler, J.c., 126.

Flowers solitary, binate, or in clusters of 3-5, with or without a common peduncle. Corolla inflated towards the middle, unequally 6-cleft. Filaments diminishing upwards. Anthers linear, acute, becoming curved as the flower fades. Style usually terete; stigma subcapitate. Fruit ovoid to globose, red; endosperm slightly furrowed; embryonic cotyledons very short, lanceolate, slightly spreading; hypocotyl often long and verrucose, with suctoral papillae; embryonic cotyledons withdrawn from the endosperm on germination. WHrect or pendulous glabrous shrubs with terete, or narrow venulose leaves; union ball-like, without adven- titious roots.

The species belonging to Sections Lysiana and Amylotheca are placed under Elytranthe by Engler (in Nachtr. l.c.), but I have transferred them to Loranthus for reasons partly expressed under Section Neotreubella (THESE PROCEEDINGS, xlvii, 1922, 7). The only characters which seem to vary unessentially from those of Hlytranthe, are the corolla and the anthers. But as the same characters are also peculiar to some species of Loranthus, in contradistinction to the two or more celled ovary of Elytranthe, it seems to me that the species referred to are more closely allied to Loranthus than to Elytranthe. It must be borne in mind that the ovary of various species of Loranthus, although 1-celled, sometimes contains 2 embryos, and is apt to be mistaken for a 2-celled ovary.

32. LoranrHus Murray F. v. M. et Tate. Plate i. Mueller et Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A. vi, 1883, 109; Tate, Handbook Fl. Extra- Trop. S.A. 1890, 106.—Elyiranthe Murrayi (F. v. M. et Tate), Engler, 1.c.

Glabrous, leaves alternate, semi-terete, slender, not exceeding two inches in length, sometimes attenuated at the base; flowers mostly solitary, sometimes in pairs on flattened, shortly winged pedicels, about 34-inch long, without a common peduncle; bracts unequally bilobed, conspicuous, decurrent on the pedicels; calyx- tube prominent, glaucous, its border truncate and obscurely toothed; petals usually 6, about 10 lines long, united to about two-thirds their length into a slightly dilated tube; corolla tube pale-yellow; segments linear-lanceolate, yellow below, pale rose above; stigma capitate; style and filaments brown; anthers adnate, broadly linear; unripe fruit globular, glaucous.

Supplementary Notes to the Description. Branches virgate, lenticular, and apparently pendulous; mode of attachment unknown. Leaves opposite, alternate, or more often fascicled at the intersection


of the abortive branches, compressed, linear, contracted at the base or nearly terete. Flowers rarely in pairs; bracts sometimes exceeding the calyx, and occasionally semi-foliaceous and more decurrent than in any of the allied species. Buds slightly curved, but occasionally much curved, usually acute, inflated upwards; corolla 2 cm. long; style angular, with a raised circular disc at its base; cotyledons unknown.

Range.—uUp till now this species has only been recorded for South Australia and Western Australia; it is now recorded for the first time as an addition to the flora of New South Wales and Queensland from the following localities:

New South Wales.—Paldrumatta Bore, Wilecannia (on Acacia aneura); Momba; Rowenia Tank, five miles from Mootwingie Hills (on L. Hxocarpi) ; Urisino-Thurloo Downs, Paroo River (on Acacia excelsa, Heterodendron oleaefolium).

Queensland.—Near Charleville (on FHremophila Mitchelli).

South Australia.—Spencer’s Gulf; north-east part of Lake Torrens Basin; Upper Arkaringa Valley (on Acacia salicina); Musgrave Range; Idyaka, near Termination Hill; Aroona Range, the type locality; Albergia River; Mount Lynd- hurst; near Tarcoola.

Western Australia.—Upper Gascoyne River.

Affinities.— Besides its affinity with L. linearifolius (lL. Mitchellianus, as pointed out by Professor Tate, /.c.), some of the very narrow leaved forms of L. Hxocarpi var. tenuis resemble it in the shape of both the leaves and flowers, but the pedicels are very dissimilar. To L. Gaudichaudi DC., it is allied in its spherical fruits, and somewhat in the leaves, especially the short, compressed leaved forms, but the flowers are totally different. L. Murrayi is distinguished from all the Australian species by its decurrent bracts which give the pedicels a slightly winged appearance.

Hosts.—Leguminosae: Acacia aneura F. v. M., A. excelsa Benth., A. salicina

Lindl. Sapindaceae: Heterodendron oleaefolium Desf. Myoporaceae: Myoporum Mitchelli Benth.


Journ. Bot. xxxv, 1897, 170, as L. miniatus; Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. xxxiv, 1898-1900, 225-6.

Flowers pale greenish below, yellow or orange above. Berries dark red. Near Goose’s Soak and Kilkenny Soak, Western Australia.

The author refers to this plant as follows: “Since writing my memoir (vide loc. cit.) on the camel-fodder plants of West Australia, I have had the oppor- tunity of seeing at Kew, specimens of L. Murrayi, the affinity of which, with my supposed new species, Loranthus miniatus, I have already alluded to. I find that the Hider Expedition specimen. referred to L. Murrayi has the peculiar habit of mine, viz., leaves crowning subobsolete branches; and as the flowers, except for their reduced size, are essentially similar to those of typical L. Murrayi, it would be better to consider the West Australian plant as a small-flowered variety of the South Australian plant.”

I have not seen this variety, which appears to differ from the typical form chiefly in the smaller pedicels and flowers.

Synonym.—L. miniatus S. Moore.

Host.—Leguminosae: Acacia sp.


33. LoraANTHUS MITCHELLIANUS, n. sp. Plate ii. Hook., Mitch. Trop. Aust., 1848, 102, as L. linearifolia; Walp., Rept. Bot. ii, 1851-52, 780; Benth., B. Fl. iii, 1866, 392; Tate, Handb. Fl. Hat.-Trop. S.A., 1890, 106; Moore et Betche, Handb. Fl. N.S.W., 1893, 228; Bail., Fl. Q’land, v, 1902, 1379.

The name L. linearifolius is already occupied by a Chilian species (vide Bert., Merc. Chili, 1829, ex Am. Journ. Sci. xxiii, 1833, 95). Therefore, I propose the name Mitchellianus, in honour of the collector, Lieut.-Col. Sir Thomas Mitchell, Surveyor-General of New South Wales, 1845.

The following is a translation of the original description: Leaves glabrous, carnose, terete, linear-filiform, acute; peduncles axillary, shortly biflorous; calyx eylindrical, truncate, contracted; petals 6, linear, cohering above the base.

Supplementary Notes to the Description.

Pendulous shrubs with long, slender, glabrous, reddish-brown branches, covered with numerous orbicular lenticels. Union ball-like; leaves chiefly opposite, filiform, semiterete, acute, 2-8 cm. long, straight or curved, the apex sometimes uncinate. Flowers glabrous, red, tipped with green or yellow, in pairs on slender, axillary, and sometimes terminal peduncles; the common peduncle slightly thicker than the pedicels, 3-9 mm. long, the pedicels longer, flat, broader towards the top. Bracts cordate, acute, or truncate, and occasionally bilobed, pale coloured, decurrent on the pedicels. Calyx cylindrical, with a minute obscurely denticulate limb. Buds 2-24 cm. long, inflated in the middle to a diameter more than twice the size of the contracted, curved upper portion. Corolla semi- transparent, divided to about one-third of its length into 6 slightly unequally acute petals, which are narrower at the attachment of the filaments, and con- siderably broader towards the base, deflexed or recurved after anthesis. Filaments of unequal length, the free portion much larger than the adnate portion. Anthers adnate, oblong, linear, 2 mm. long; style terete, curved in bud, the base conoidal, and the most persistent on the fruit of all the Australian species. Stigma small, scarcely capitate. Fruit elliptical to ovate-oblong, 12 mm. long, whitish to pale pink. In a dry state they resemble the dried fruits of Persoonia pinifolia. Seeds elliptical, slightly sulcate; the endosperm almost separable into several divisions without laceration, as in the seeds of L. dictyophlebus; hypocotyl slender; suctoral disc flat, surrounded by a fringe of rather long green papillae; cotyledons not seen.

The type locality is on the Narran River, in the vicinity of Angledool; it was collected by Mitchell, on March 24th, 1846 (vide Mitchell’s Tropical Australia, 101-2. “A beautiful new Loranth, with red flowers tipped with green was parasitic on Capparis lasiantha.’’).

Economic Uses.—Stock Inspector A. W. Mullen reports that stock are very fond of this species, and that in many cases they will not eat the tree on which it grows. Spencer L. Moore (Journ. Bot. xxxv, 1897, 170) includes this species amongst the Camel fodder plants of Western Australia.

Synonyms.—L. linearifolius Hook., Elytranthe linearifolius (Hook.) Engler.

_ Range.—L. Mitchellianus is almost exclusively a desert species, inhabiting the drier parts of the continent, and it is frequently parasitic upon Acacia and other soft-wooded plants. Its present range extends from Coonabarabran, in New South Wales, to Irwinbank, in Queensland, and, crossing the central portion of South Australia, it makes its appearance in Western Australia at Murrin Murrin,


in the Great Victoria Desert, and at Cue, in the Gibson Desert, and then extends in a north-westerly direction from Cue to Sharks Bay.

Affinities—Near L. Murrayi F. v. M. et Tate, from which it differs in the geminate flowers, smaller bracts, and differently shaped fruits.

Its affinity to L. Casuarinae lies chiefly in the similarity of the flowers, and somewhat in the leaves. The chief character of differentiation between these species is the furcate peduncle of L. Mitchellianus, which is always well developed, as against the very short or imperfectly developed common peduncle of L. Casuarinae; there is also a marked difference in the leaves, those of the latter are always. more rigid and thicker than those of the former.

The very delicate and slender forms of L. Hxocarpi var. tenuis show a close resemblance to L. Mitchellianus; the arrangement of the flowers, however, sharply separates them, as in L. Casuarinae; and the base of the style is not enlarged to the same extent as in L. Mitchellianus.

Hosts.—Casuarineae: Casuarina sp. Proteaceae: Grevillea striata R. Br., Hakea Preissii Meissn. Capparidaceae: Capparis lasiantha R. Br., Apophyllum anomalum F. v. M. Leguminosae: Acacia aneura F. v. M., A. Burkitti F. v. M., A. colletioides A. Cunn., A. excelsa Benth., A. sentis F. v. M. Rutaceae: Flindersia maculosa F. v. M. Myoporaceae: Hremophila Mitchelli Benth.

34. LoRANTHUS CASUARINAE Mig. (non Ridley). Plate iii. Lehm., Pl. Preiss., 1844-5, 279; Walp., Rept. Bot. v, 1845-6, 938; Mueller, Rept. Burdk. Exped., 1860, 18.

The following is a translation of the original description: Glabrous, branches terete; leaves subopposite or opposite, terete-filiform, succulent, coriaceous, shortly mucronate, glabrous. Flowers axillary, pedicellate, solitary or in pairs on the common peduncle. Calyx-limb obscurely denticulate. Petals 6, narrow-linear, cohering and terete-clavate in bud, at length free. Stamens inserted on the upper half of the petals; anthers linear, of equal length. Style filiform.

Parasitic on Casuarina, on the plains above Perth, 13 May, 1839, Herb. Preiss, No. 1615. Branches terete; branchlets trichotomous or alternate, smooth, dark ashy-grey, easily broken. Leaves somewhat rigid, green, terete, subopposite, rarely perfectly opposite, wrinkled when dry, straight or subflexuose, terminating in a short mucro, 5-10 cm. long, 1-3 mm. thick. Flowers axillary, solitary or in pairs; the common peduncle 2-4 mm. long; pedicels about 1 cm. long; basal bract ovate, shortly acute, concave, carnose. Buds cylindrical or subclavate, slightly curved towards the top. Calyx 4 mm. long, obconic, the limb pale, obscurely denticulate. Petals linear, the apex dilated and acute. Anthers 7 mm. long.

Bentham reduced it to a synonym of L. linophyllus Fenzl. I have not seen Preiss. No. 1615, but from the description it seems to belong to the Dendrophthoe group rather than to Huloranthus. I am also influenced in arriving at this decision by the investigation of specimens collected by Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald, near Perth, the type locality, with the following note by Mr. Fitzgerald: “Flowers from red to greenish or yellowish red. Fruit scarlet, with viscid pulp.” The flowers are identical with those of L. Hxocarpi Behr, with the characteristic short, thick, common peduncle, giving rise to two short, deflexed pedicels. The leaves are terete, straight or flexuose, ending in a short mucro. The branches are also very similar to those of LL. Ezocarpi, and quite distinct from the branches of L. linophyllus. I received the loan of another specimen from Professor Ewart,


Melbourne Herbarium, which was labelled as follows: Loranthus Casuarinae Miq., Red Point, Western Australia, Oldfield; L. linophyllus Fenzl. The latter name is in Baron von Mueller’s handwriting; the former, probably that of the collector, Oldfield. The leaves are quite glabrous, mostly opposite, compressed-terete, acute and firm, 3 inches long, and articulate on a rather broad, circular base. Flowers reddish, with the same characters as L. Hxrocarpi.

I have not seen any other specimens like the above, especially in regard to the terete, flexuose, acute leaves, and they are unlike other slender forms of L. Exocarpi. This form, no doubt, is L. Casuarinae Mig.

James Drummond (Notes on the Botany of Western Australia, Hooker’s Journ. Bot. v, 143) refers to this species as follows: “On Messrs. Davis and Walcott’s station on the Greenough are two new species of Loranthus, both parasitic on the ‘Raspberry Jam.’ One of them resembles L. Preissii in foliage, but the tubes of the flowers are longer and narrower, and of a different colour, the lower part of the tube red, the upper yellow; they are also of a different shape, having a sort of ringent mouth.”

Mueller (Rept. Burd. Exped., 12) makes the following comment on this species: “LL. Casuarinae Miq. is as yet in its normal form with cylindrical leaves only found in the Western extra-tropical portion of our continent, reaching to Chamber’s Creek eastward. But it appears that only the flat leaves distinguish L. Exocarpi, whilst in a specimen gathered near Lake Torrens the leaves are semiterete. If the very characteristic black berry of L. Exocarpi is identical with that of L. Casuarinae we cannot hesitate to combine both.”

In reference to the fruit of L. Casuarinae, Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald states that it is scarlet. But as the fruit of L. Hxocarpi is red before it turns black, the fruit of L. Casuarinae may change from red to black also. This point can only be settled by further field investigation. I quite agree with Mueller that the main difference between L. Casuarinae and L. Exocarpi is in the leaves. All the other characters appear to be the same in both species. LL. Casuarinae Miq. is the oldest name; it was described two years before L. Exocarpi Behr., but as the latter name has been in use for the last seventy odd years, and as it is readily distinguished from L. Casuarinae in the leaves, I think it should also be recognised as a distinct species.

Synonym.—L. linophyllus Benth. (non Fenzl), Hlytranthe Casuarinae (Miq.) Engler.

Range.—Western Australia: Perth (on Casuarina sp., Preiss, No. 1615, the type); Comet Vale (on Casuarina glauca); Greenough River (on Acacia acuminata); Red Point.

South Australia: Chamber’s Creek; Lake Torrens. I have not seen these specimens, but they appear to be referable to this species.

Hosts.—Casuarineae: Casuarina glauca Sieb. Leguminosae: Acacia acuminata Benth.

35. LORANTHUS ExocarpPlI Behr. Plate iv.

Behr, Schlecht. Linnaea, xx, 1847, 624: Walp., Rept. Bot. Syst. i, 1848-9, 364; Miq., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. iv, 1856, 105; Benth., B. Fl. iii, 1866, 392; Etting., Uber die Blatts. der Lor., iii, Figs. 14, 15; Muell., Key Vic. Pl. i, 1887-8, 273; Eng., Engl. et Prantl, Pflzfam. iii, i, 184, Fig. 126; Moore and Betche, Fl. N.S.W., 1896, 228; Bail. Qland Fl. v, 1902, 1397; Tate, Handb. Fl. Ext.-Trop. S.A., 106.

I have not seen the original description; those already referred to are very similar to each other, and for preference I give that of Bentham.


Glabrous. Leaves mostly opposite, but here and there alternate, from oblong- cuneate to narrow-linear, but always flat, obtuse, narrowed into a petiole, mostly 13 to 23 inches long, rather thick, often triplinerved. Flowers axillary, pedicellate, solitary or in pairs, on thick pedicels, sessile or more rarely borne on a very short common peduncle. Calyx border obscurely toothed. Petals usually 6, above 1 inch long, united to about one-third of their length. Anthers adnate, linear.

Supplementary Notes.—Usually pendulous shrubs with a ball-like union, often forming dense drooping masses; branches terete, reddish-brown with numerous lenticels, 2-3 feet long, but sometimes longer. Leaves of the typical form -3 inches long, 3-4 inch broad, quite glabrous, penninerved, never strictly tri- plinerved. Flowers in axillary clusters of 3-4, or more often solitary, or in pairs on a very short, thick peduncle; the pedicels twice as long as the calyx, the top of which is somewhat rounded into a slightly thickened disc. Bracts small, usually cordate, acute, occasionally truncate, or minutely trilobed and spreading. Calyx very narrow, cylindric, the limb small, irregularly denticulate. Buds curved, acute, inflated in the middle, usually more than lin. long, the lower portion reddish, green towards the top. Petals 5 or 6, linear-lanceolate, unequally cleft, with a small thickened callosity at the base, the lower one divided to about the middle of the corolla, the upper ones scarcely to the middle, all abrupty deflexed near the attachment of the filaments. Filaments reddish, though sometimes yellowish or greenish, the free portion about the same length as the very narrow, curved anthers; the cells of the latter very narrow, membranous and fragile. Style faintly angular, and when enclosed in the bud, bent from one side of the corolla to the other in a distinct wave, and actually shorter than the anthers, pale green in the lower portion, reddish towards the top; stigma ovate, not large. Dise circular, very small. Fruit elliptical, 8-10 mm. long, bright yellow to reddish, turning black when over-ripe; seeds ovate-elliptical, longitudinally 5-furrowed; hypocotyl verrucose in the dormant seed, about half the length of the entire embryo; embryonic disc slightly enlarged; endosperm and embryo green, the former hard, the latter nail-shaped; embryonic cotyledons very short, scarcely 1 mm. long, and about as broad, somewhat emarginate. On germination the hypocotyl is minutely verrucose with suctoral papillae and it becomes elongated, sometimes exceeding 2 ecm.; suctoral disc domed, the surface microscopically papillose, and with a ring of longer papillae at its base, which soon falls. The cotyledons appear to withdraw from the endosperm on germination.

The life history of L. Hxocarpi is ably expounded by C. C. Brittlebank (THESE PROCEEDINGS XxXxiii, 1908, 650). The seeds are figured in various stages of development, and numerous sections of the plant are shown illustrating its attachment with the various hosts.

The leaves of L. Hxocarpi (figured by Ettingshausen, Uber die Blatts. der Lor., Tab. iii, fig. 14, 15) are strikingly like many of the leaves of the typical form; they are narrow-oblong to narrow-spathulate, 2-24 inches long.

The type comes from Barossa, where it was collected by Dr. Hans Herman Behr between 1841 and 1846. Barossa is a small mining township situated between the South Para River and Sandy Creek about 25 miles N.N.E. from Adelaide.

Synonyms.—Loranthus angustifolius R. Br.; Hlytranthe Exocarpi (Behr.) Engler.

Range.—Found widely in all the States of the mainland. Like other interior ‘species, it follows closely the saline country and shows considerable variation throughout its wide range. This fact was noted by Bentham, for he says: “the


narrow-leaved forms are common in the south, and the broad-leaved forms are found in the north.” As will be seen subsequently, I have separated the various forms into distinct varieties, as some are particularly striking, especially in relation to the shape, length and venation of the leaves, and also in the colour of the flowers.

Affinities.—This species shows affinity with L. Mitchellianus in the flowers and their arrangement, but the common peduncle and pedicel are much longer in the latter, the leaves of L. Mitchellianus are very narrow, almost terete, and therefore they are very dissimilar from those of L. Hxocarpi.

Some of the narrow-leaved forms of L. acacioides A. Cunn. are likely to be confused with similar leaves of this species, unless the opposite character of the leaves of L. Exocarpi is borne in mind, and also its shorter and stouter pedicels, in contradistinction to the slender pedicels of L. acacioides.

Stock Food.—Mr. EH. Officer, of Zara, near Hay, reports that sheep eat the leaves of L. Hxocarpi readily.

Hosts.—This is a most polyphagous species as the following hosts will show. Pinaceae: Callitris cupressiformis Vent. Casuarineae: Casuarina stricta Ait., C. Luehmanni R. T. Baker. Moraceae: Ficus orbicularis A. Cunn. Santalaceae: Santalum lanceolatum R. Br., Fusanus acuminatus R. Br., Hxocarpus cupressi- formis Labill., H. aphyllus R. Br. Loranthaceae: Loranthus Quandang Lindl., L. Miquelii Lehm., L. pendulus Sieb., L. miraculosus Mig., L. Preissii Miq. Proteaceae: Hakea lorea R. Br., H. Ivoryi Bail. Chenopodiaceae: Chenopodium nitrariaceum F. v. M. Leguminosae: Acacia aneura F. v. M., A. Burkitti F. v. M., A. calamifolia Sweet., A. binervosa DC., A. dealbata Link., A. decurrens Willd., A. excelsa Benth., A. homalophylla A. Cunn., A. implexa Benth., A. melanoxylon R. Br., A. Oswaldi F. v. M., A. pendula A. Cunn., A. pycnantha Benth., A. salicina Lindl., A. sentis F. v. M., A. sericata A. Cunn., A. tetragonophylia F. v. M., A. retinodes Schl., Cassia Sturtii R. Br., C. pteroloba F. v. M., Bauhinia sp., Bossiaea Battii F. v. M., Templetonia egenea Benth. Capparidaceae: Capparis Mitchel Lindl., Apophyllum anomalum F. v. M. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum phyllyraeoides DC., Bursaria spinosa Cav. Rosaceae: (e€) Prunus cerasus L., (e) P. Persica L., (e) P. amygdalus L., (e) P. domestica L., (e) Pyrus Cydonia, (e) P. communis L. Rutaceae: Geijera parviflora Lindl. (e) Lisbon Lemon. Sapindaceae: Hremocitrus glauca Swingl., Heterodendron oleaefolium Desf. Violaceae: Hymenanthera Banksii F. v. M. Myrtaceae: Angophora lanceolata Cav., EHucalyptus populifolia Hook., HE. rostrata Schl., Melaleuca sp. Oleaceae: (e) Olea Huropaea L. Apocynaceae: (e€) Neriwm Oleander L. Solanaceae: (e) Nicotiana glauca L. Myoporaceae: Hremophila Brownii F. v. M., H. Duttonii F. v. M., ZL. Freelingii F. v. M., EH. Sturtii R. Br. Rubiaceae: Canthium oleifolium Hook.

(e) Denotes exotic plants.

(a) Var. TENUIS, n. var. Plate v.

Frutex ramis glabris longis et tenuibus lenticulatis. Folia angusto-linearia recta vel curva, media costa prominento, 10-15 cm. longa. Flores nonnumquam in parvis cymis. Gemmae tenues; petali glauco-virides; corolla rubra; antherae aliquanto longae. Stylus tenuis, plerumque cum corolla caducus; stigma parvum, ovatum. Fructus maturus sanguineus, ovatus, circiter 6 mm. K 5 mm.

Branches glabrous, long and slender, lenticulate; leaves narrow-linear, straight or curved, the median nerve prominent, 10-15 cm. long. Flowers sometimes in small clusters; buds slender; petals sea-green; corolla red; anthers rather long;


style slender, usually falling off with the corolla; stigma small, ovate. Fruit blood- red when ripe, ovate, about 6 mm. X 5 mm.

This is probably the narrow leaved form referred to by Bentham. It is dis- persed over four States.

Range.—Victoria: You Yangs, near Melbourne; Grampians; Dumosa, near Mt. Wycheproof; near Charlton; Fairview; Dimboola. South Australia: Bowerton; York Valley; Ooldea. New South Wales: Zara; Griffith; Hangonia, via Dubbo; Belmont, Lake Macquarie; West Bogan; Coolabah; Byrock; Glendon; Baeramia, Denman; Gungal; Narrabri; Pilliga; 40 or 50 miles N.W. of Collarenebri; Bog- gabri; Mungindi. Queensland: Stannary Hills.

Hosts.—Casuarineae: Casuarina glauca Sieb., OC. lepidophloia F. v. M., C. paludosa Sieb., C. Luehmanni R. T. Baker. Loranthaceae: Loranthus linophyllus Fenzl. Santalaceae: Hxocarpus aphylia R. Br., H. cupressiformis Labill. Pitto- sporaceae: Bursaria spinosa Cay., Pittosporum phyllyraeoides DC. Proteaceae: Hakea vittata R. Br. Leguminosae: Acacia excelsa Benth., A. Oswaldi F. v. M., Cassia eremophila A. Cunn., C. Sturtii R. Br., Jacksonia scoparia R. Br. Sapin- daceae: Hremocitrus glauca Swingl., Heterodendron oleaefolium Desf. Rutaceae: Geijera parviflora Lindl.

(0) Var. FLAVESCENS (Muell.) Miquel. Plate v.

Ned. Kruidk. Arch. iv, 1856, 105; F. v. M. and Tate, Trans. Roy. Soc. el Xvi, 1892, 360, as var. lutea, without a description.

The following is a translation of the original description: Flower tube yellow; leaves long and narrow, rather curved; branches divaricate.

No definite locality is quoted by Mueller for this variety, but there is reason for assuming that it came from the southern parts of the continent, probably from Victoria. Max Koch (Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A. vi, 1900, 83) states that “a form with yellow petals and green at the summit is often found.”

Range.—Victoria: Near Mount Charlton. New South Wales: Nyngan (on Acacia stenophylla). Queensland: Knockbreak Station; Hidsvold (on Casuarina Luehmanni. Flowers tubular, of an orange colour, Dr. T. L. Bancroft). Sowth Australia: Morphett Vale (petals bright lemon yellow, with green tips, C. F. Johnecock, Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A. xxvi, 1901, 253); Mt. Lyndhurst; Cootanoorina (on Acacia sp.; the type of var. lutea F. v. M. and Tate, l.c. Leaves narrow lanceolate, to falcate lanceolate, obtuse, 13 to 24 inches long. Flowers the same as in L. Hxocarpi, but yellow, shaded green). Western Australia: Comet Vale (on Casuarina glauca. Leaves linear as in var. tenwis, buds yellow, slender).

Differing from L. Hxocarpi in the narrow leaves and yellow flowers.

Synonym.—L. Hxocarpi Behr. var. lutea F. v. M. and Tate.

Hosts.—Casuarineae: Casuarina glauca Sieb., OC. Luehmanni R. T. Baker. Leguminosae: Acacia stenophylla A. Cunn.

(ec) Var. VENULOSA, n. var. Plate v.

Folia cuneato-spathulata aliquanto lata, fortiter venala nonnunquam bis-vel tripli-vernata. Flores recentes glauco-virides vertice, basi in colorem stramentum mergentes.

Leaves cuneate-spathulate rather broad, strongly veined, with a tendency to become bi- or tri-plinerved. Flowers when fresh, sea-green at the top, shading into straw-yellow at the base.

Range.—Cobar (on Acacia colletioides, J. lL. Boorman, 5, 1918, the type). Archdeacon Haviland (THESE PROCEEDINGS xxxvi, 1911, 523) records a yellow flowering form from Cobar; between 16 and 34 miles from Bourke towards Cobar


(on Acacia aneura) with yellow flowers in May (vide R. H. Cambage, THEsE PROCEEDINGS xxv, 1900, 597): Gunnedah; Narrabri (on Heterodendron oleaefolium) ; Warialda (on Santalum lanceolatum).

Hosts.—Santalaceae: Santalum lanceolatum R. Br. Leguminosae: Acacia aneura F. v. M., A. colletioides A. Cunn. Sapindaceae: Heterodendron oleaefolium Desf.

(ad) Var. coccInEUS (F. Muell.) Miquel.

Ned. Kruidk. Arch. iv, 1856, 105. ,

The following is a translation of the original description: Tube scarlet; leaves broadish, slightly curved; branches rather erect. Immature berry at first green, then red; mature black, globose, smaller than a cherry, containing a copious quantity of bird-lime. Flowering in summer.

The following is a copy of a label in Melbourne Herbarium in Mueller’s hand- writing: “Loranthus Exocarpi Behr., var. floribus coccini, on Acacia retinoides, Casuarina, and Exocarpus, Murray, F. Mueller, March, 1851.” A second label is as follows: ‘Loranthus Exocarpi Behr, var. rubra (Loranthus perfidiosus Ferd. Mueller). In ramis Hxocarpus cupressiformis, pes planties versus (?) Lat. Vit. L. Apr. 28th, 1848.”

These, no doubt, are the specimens referred to by Miquel (/.c.) and probably constitute the type of var. coccineus, which appears to differ from the typical form in the colour of the flowers only. However, as fresh specimens are not avail- able, I am inclined to uphold the variety. It will be a matter for local botanists to investigate, and ascertain if the characters are constant, and also whether there are other characters to distinguish it from the typical form.

Range.—It seems to be confined to South Australia.

The name L. perfidiosus is an herbarium one only, as is also var. rubra.

Hosts—Santalaceae: Exocarpus cupressiformis Labill. Casuarineae: Casuarina sp. Leguminosae: Acacia retinodes. Schl.

(e) Var. SPATHULATA, n. var. Plate v.

Frutex ramis indivisis longis et tenuibus, haud divaricatis ut in typo. Cortex levis rubescens. Folia spathulata vel falcato-spathulata, obtusa, venis, nonnum- quam vagis, sed plerumque prominentibus 6-10 cm. longis, petiolo fere 3 cm. longo. Flores minores quam in typo, curvi, siccati obscuro-rubri. Calyx dentatus longibus segmentis. Fructus oblongus, 13 mm. longus; basis styli persistens apud fructum.

Branches simple, long and slender, not divaricate as in the typical form.’ Bark smooth, brownish; leaves spathulate, or falcate-spathulate, obtuse, 6-10 cm. long, the petiole nearly 3 cm. long. Flowers smaller than the normal form, curved, drying a very dark red; calyx deeply toothed. Fruit oblong, 13 mm. long in a dry state, with the base of the style persistent upon it.

Range.—Confined to the Northern Territory, North Queensland, and North- West Australia.

North Queensland: Settlement Creek (on Hrythrophloeum Laboucherii). Two of the leaves measure 8 X 4 cm., with three prominent, and three finer veins; Bacon Swamp (on Hucalyptus sp., the type); Lander Creek (on Cassia Sturtii, Santalum lanceolatum. Leaves 3-6 cm. long, spathulate, rather thick, obscurely veined. Buds stout, curved, 2 cm. long. JL. dictyophlebus F. v. M., Ewart and Davies, Fl. N.T., 88); 106 miles N. of Survey Camp iv (on Acacia stipuligera, A. coriacea); 20 miles N. of Tennant’s Creek, MacDonnell Range (on Acacia holosericea); Kelly’s Well, near Kelly’s Creek (on Eucalyptus pyrophora var. polycarpa, Acacia dictyophleba. The common peduncle in the three specimens is


well developed, sometimes exceeding 4 mm. long). This is probably the variety referred to by Mueller (Rept. Burdk. Haped., 12): “A variety with spathulate leaves I observed in Arnheim’s Land and on the Gilbert River.’

Western Australia: Near Mount Agnes, Kimberley district (on Santalum lanceolatum).

Hosts.—Moraceae: Ficus sp. Santalaceae: Santalum lanceolatum R. Br. Leguminosae: Acacia dictyophleba F. v. M., A. coriacea DC., A. holosericea A. Cunn., A. stipuligera, F. v. M., Cassia Sturtii R. Br., Erythrophloeum Laboucherti F. v. M. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus pyrophora Benth.