PREAMBLE (NOT PART OF THE STANDARD)

In order to promote public education and public safety, equal justice for all, a better informed citizenry, the rule of law, world trade and world peace, this legal document is hereby made available on a noncommercial basis, as it is the right of all humans to know and speak the laws that govern them.

END OF PREAMBLE (NOT PART OF THE STANDARD)

EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM

EN 1993-4-3

February 2007

ICS 23.040.01; 91.010.30; 91.080.10

Supersedes ENV 1993-4-3:1999

English version

Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 4-3: Pipelines

Eurocode 3 - Calcul des constructions en acier - Partie 4-3: Tuyauterie Eurocode 3 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 4-3: Rohrleitungen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 June 2006.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Image

Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2007 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No. EN 1993-4-3:2007: E

1

Content

  Foreword 3
  Background of the Eurocode programme 3
Status and field of application of Eurocodes 4
  National Standards implementing Eurocodes 4
  Links between Eurocodes and harmonised technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) 5
  Additional information specific to EN 1993-4-3 5
  National Annex for EN 1993-4-3 5
1 General 7
  1.1 Scope 7
  1.2 Normative references 8
  1.3 Assumptions 9
  1.4 Distinction between principles and application rules 9
  1.5 Definitions 9
  1.6 S.I. units 10
  1.7 Symbols used in Part 4-3 of Eurocode 3 10
  1.8 Terminology 11
2 Basis of design 13
  2.1 General 13
  2.2 Fundamental requirements for pipelines 13
  2.3 Reliability differentiation 13
  2.4 Methods of analysis 14
  2.5 Ultimate limit states 14
  2.6 Serviceability limit slates 15
3 Properties of materials 16
  3.1 General 16
  3.2 Mechanical properties of pipeline steels 16
  3.3 Mechanical properties of welds 16
  3.4 Toughness requirements of plate materials and welds 17
  3.5 Fasteners 17
  3.6 Soil properties 17
4 Actions 18
  4.1 Actions to be considered 18
  4.2 Partial factors for actions 18
  4.3 Load combinations for ultimate limit states 18
  4.4 Load combinations for serviceability limit state design 19
5 Analysis 20
  5.1 Structural models 20
  5.2 Ultimate limit state verification 23
  5.3 Serviceability limit state verifications 25
6 Structural design aspects of fabrication and erection 25
Annex A: [informative] - Analysis of resistances, deformations, stresses and strains of buried pipelines 26
  A.1 Procedure and scope of analysis 26
  A.2 Analysis for straight pipes 26
  A.3 Analysis for bends 33
Annex B: [informative] - Bibliography to National Standards and design guides 34
Annex C: [informative] - Bibliography 35
  C.1 General bibliography on pipelines 35
  C.2 Bibliography on geotechnical engineering 39
2

Foreword

This European Standard EN 1993-4-3, “Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 4.3: Pipelines”, has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC250 « Structural Eurocodes », the Secretariat of which is held by BSI. CEN/TC250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a National Standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2007, and conflicting National Standards shall be withdrawn at latest by March 2010.

This document supersedes ENV 1993-4-3:1999.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the National Standard Organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Background of the Eurocode programme

In 1975, the Commission of the European Community decided on an action programme in the field of construction, based on article 95 of the Treaty. The objective of the programme was the elimination of technical obstacles to trade and the harmonisation of technical specifications.

Within this action programme, the Commission took the initiative to establish a set of harmonised technical rules for the design of construction works which, in a first stage, would serve as an alternative to the National rules in force in the Member States and, ultimately, would replace them.

For fifteen years, the Commission, with the help of a Steering Committee with Representatives of Member States, conducted the development of the Eurocodes programme, which led to the first generation of European codes in the 1980’s.

In 1989, the Commission and the Member States of the EU and EFTA decided, on the basis of an agreement1) between the Commission and CEN, to transfer the preparation and the publication of the Eurocodes to the CEN through a series of Mandates, in order to provide them with a future status of European Standard (EN). This links de facto the Eurocodes with the provisions of all the Council’s Directives and/or Commission’s Decisions dealing with European standards (e.g. the Council Directive 89/106/EEC on construction products - CPD - and Council Directives 93/37/EEC, 92/50/EEC and 89/440/EEC on public works and services and equivalent EFTA Directives initiated in pursuit of setting up the internal market).

The Structural Eurocode programme comprises the following standards generally consisting of a number of Parts:

EN 1990 Eurocode 0: Basis of structural design
EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures
EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures 3
EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

1) Agreement between the Commission of the European Communities and the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) concerning the work on EUROCODES for the design of building and civil engineering works (BC/CEN/03/89).

Eurocode standards recognise the responsibility of regulatory authorities in each Member State and have safeguarded their right to determine values related to regulatory safety matters at national level where these continue to vary from State to State.

Status and field of application of Eurocodes

The Member States of the EU and EFTA recognise that EUROCODES serve as reference documents for the following purposes:

The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a direct relationship with the Interpretative Documents2) referred to in Article 12 of the CPD, although they are of a different nature from harmonised product standards3). Therefore, technical aspects arising from the Eurocodes work need to be adequately considered by CEN Technical Committees and/or EOTA Working Groups working on product standards with a view to achieving full compatibility of these technical specifications with the Eurocodes.

The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for everyday use for the design of whole structures and component products of both a traditional and an innovative nature. Unusual forms of construction or design conditions are not specifically covered and additional expert consideration will be required by the designer in such cases.

National Standards implementing Eurocodes

The National Standards implementing Eurocodes will comprise the full text of the Eurocode (including any annexes), as published by CEN, which may be preceded by a National title page and National foreword, and may be followed by a National Annex.

The National Annex may only contain information on those parameters which are left open in the Eurocode for national choice, known as Nationally Determined Parameters, to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the country concerned, i.e. :

2) According to Art. 3.3 of the CPD, the essential requirements (ERs) shall be given concrete form in interpretative documents for the creation of the necessary links between the essential requirements and the mandates for harmonised ENs and ETAGs/ETAs.

3) According to Art. 12 of the CPD the interpretative documents shall :

  1. give concrete form to the essential requirements by harmonising the terminology and the technical bases and indicating classes or levels for each requirement where necessary ;
  2. indicate methods of correlating these classes or levels of requirement with the technical specifications, e.g. methods of calculation and of proof, technical rules for project design, etc. ;
  3. serve as a reference for the establishment of harmonised standards and guidelines for European technical approvals.

    The Eurocodes, de facto, play a similar role in the field of the ER 1 and a part of ER 2.

4

Links between Eurocodes and harmonised technical specifications (ENs and ETAs)

There is a need for consistency between the harmonised technical specifications for construction products and the technical rules for works4). Furthermore, all the information accompanying the CE Marking of the construction products which refer to Eurocodes shall clearly mention which Nationally Determined Parameters have been taken into account.

Additional information specific to EN 1993-4-3

EN 1993-4-3 gives design rules for the structural design of buried pipelines, in particular for the evaluation of the strength, stiffness and deformation capacity.

The rules for local buckling in this part EN 1993-4-3 are in line with those in other pipeline standards. The design critical curvatures according to EN 1993-4-3 are larger than those that could be deduced from EN 1993-1-6. The main reasons are that the loading in buried pipelines is mainly deformation controlled and the consequences of local buckling are less severe than in structures where the loading is mainly load controlled.

It is recognized that many standards exist for the design of pipelines covering many different aspects. Examples are routing, pressure safety systems, corrosion protection, construction and welding, operation and maintenance. For aspects other than the structural design of the pipeline itself, reference is made to the relevant European standards listed in 1.3. This is also the case for elements like valves, fittings, insulating couplings, tees and caps.

Because up till now in EN 1991, no rules exist for actions (loads) on pipelines, reference is made to relevant EN standards on pipelines e.g. EN 1594 on gas transmission pipelines and EN 14161 on pipeline transportation systems for the petroleum and natural gas industries.

National Annex for EN 1993-4-3

This standard gives alternative procedures, values and recommendations for classes with notes indicating where national choices may have to be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing EN 1993-4-3 should have a National Annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the relevant country.

National choice is allowed in EN 1993-4-3 through paragraphs:

4) see Art.3.3 and Art. 12 of the CPD, as well as clauses 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 5.2 of ID 1

5 6

1 General

1.1 Scope

  1. This Part 4-3 of EN 1993 provides principles and application rules for the structural design of cylindrical steel pipelines for the transport of liquids or gases or mixtures of liquids and gases at ambient temperatures, which are not treated by other European standards covering particular applications.
  2. Standards dealing with specific pipeline applications should be used for these purposes, notably
  3. Rules related to special requirements of seismic design are provided in EN 1998-4 (Eurocode 8: Part 4 “Design of structures for earthquake resistance: Silos, tanks and pipelines”), which complements the rules of Eurocode 3 specifically for this purpose.
  4. This Standard is restricted to buried pipelines, corresponding to the scope of Eurocode 8 Part 4 for pipelines. It is specifically intended for use on:
  5. The design of pipelines involves many different aspects. Examples are routing, pressure safety systems, corrosion protection, construction and welding, operation and maintenance. For aspects other than the structural design of the pipeline itself, reference is made to the relevant European standards listed in 1.2. This is also the case for elements like valves, fittings, insulating couplings, tees and caps.
  6. Pipelines usually comprise several associated facilities such as pumping stations, operation centres, maintenance stations, etc., each of them housing different sorts of mechanical and electrical equipment. Since these facilities have a considerable influence on the continued operation of the system, it is necessary to give them adequate consideration in the design process aimed at satisfying the overall reliability requirements. However, explicit treatment of these facilities, is not included within the scope of this Standard.
  7. Although large diameter pipelines are within the scope of this Standard, the corresponding design criteria should not be used for apparently similar facilities like railway tunnels and large underground gas reservoirs. 7
  8. The provisions in this Standard are not necessarily complete for particular applications. Where this is the case, additional provisions specific to those applications should be adopted.
  9. This Standard specifies the requirements regarding material properties of plates and welds in terms of strength and ductility. For detailed guidelines and requirements about materials and welding, reference should be made to the relevant standards listed in l .2.
  10. The scope of this Standard is limited to steel grades with a specified minimum yield strength not exceeding 700 N/mm2.

1.2 Normative references

This European Standard incorporates, by dated and undated reference, provisions from other standards. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications apply to the European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies.

Image Texts deleted AC1 Left Arrow
Image Texts deleted AC1 Left Arrow
EN 1090-2 Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures – Technical requirements for steel structures;
Image Texts deleted AC1 Left Arrow
   Part 1: General requirements;
EN 1594 Gas supply systems: Pipelines - Maximum Operating Pressure over 16 bar, Functional requirements;
EN 1990 Basis of structural design;
EN 1991 Actions on structures;
EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures;
   Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings;
   Part 1.3: Supplementary rules for cold formed members and sheeting;
   Part 1.6: Strength and stability of shell structures;
   Part 1.7: Strength and stability of planar plated structures transversely loaded;
   Part 1.8: Design of joints;
   Part 1.9: Fatigue;
   Part 1.10: Material toughness and through-thickness properties;
   Part 1.12: Additional rules for the extension of EN 1993 up to steel grades S 700;
   Part 4.1: Silos;
   Part 4.2: Tanks;
EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design;
EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures;
   Part 4: Silos, tanks and pipelines;
Image Texts deleted AC1 Left Arrow
   Part 1: Pipes of requirement class A;
   Part 2: Pipes of requirement class B;
Image Texts deleted AC1 Left Arrow
   Part 1: General functional recommendations;
   Part 2: Specific functional recommendations for polyethylene;
   Part 3: Specific functional recommendations for steel.
EN 12732 Gas supply systems - Welding steel pipe work -functioned requirements;.
Image Texts deleted AC1 Left Arrow
ISO 1000 SI Units; 8
ISO 3183 Petroleum and natural gas industries; Steel pipe for pipelines; Technical delivery conditions (1996);
   Part 1: Pipes of requirement class A;
   Part 2: Pipes of requirements class B;
   Part 3: Pipes of requirement class C;
EN 14870  
   Parts 1,2,3 Induction bends, fittings and flanges for pipeline transportation systems
ISO 13623 Petroleum and natural gas industries; Pipeline transportation systems;
ISO 13847 Welding steel pipeline (2000);
   Part 1: Field welding;
   Part 2: Shop welding;

NOTE 1: EN 1295 is intended for sanitation, and water supply: it is chiefly concerned with principles and equations are presented only in an annex.

NOTE 2: EN 1594 is applicable to new pipelines with a maximum operating pressure (MOP) greater than 16 bar for the carriage of processed, non-toxic and non-corrosive natural gas according to ISO/DIS 13686 in on land gas supply systems. It is prepared by WG 3 Gas Transmission of CEN/TC 234 Gas Supply.

NOTE 3: For more references on gas supply, gas transmission, gas storage, etc., see EN 1594.

NOTE 4: EN 12007 was also prepared by CEN/TC 234.

NOTE 5: EN 13941 is intended for district heating and was prepared by a joint WG of CEN/TC 107 and CEN/TC 267.

NOTE 6: Standard ISO 13623 is prepared by SC2 “Pipeline transportation for the Petroleum and Natural Gas industries”, of ISO/TC 67 “Materials, Equipment and Offshore Structures for Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries”.

1.3 Assumptions

  1. The general assumptions of EN 1990 apply.

1.4 Distinction between principles and application rules

  1. Reference is made to 1.4 of EN 1993-1 -1.

1.5 Definitions

  1. The terms that are defined in EN 1991-1 for common use in the Structural Eurocodes apply to this Part 4-3 of EN 1993.
  2. Unless otherwise stated, the definitions given in ISO 9830 also apply to this Part 4-3.
  3. Supplementary to Part 1 of EN 1993, for the purposes of this Part 4-3, the following definitions apply:

1.5.1 pressure:

The gauge pressure of the gas or fluid inside the system, measured in static conditions.

1.5.2 design pressure (DP):

The pressure on which the design calculations are based.

1.5.3 operating pressure (OP):

The pressure, which occurs within a system under normal operating conditions.

9

1.5.4 maximum operating pressure (MOP):

The maximum pressure at which a system can be operated continuously under normal conditions.

NOTE: Normal conditions are: no fault in any device or stream.

1.5.5 design temperature (DT):

The temperature on which the design calculations are based.

1.5.6 operating temperature (OT):

The temperature, which occurs within a system under normal operating conditions.

1.6 S.I. units

  1. P S.I. units shall be used in accordance with International Standard ISO 1000.
  2. For calculations, the following consistent units are recommended:
    - dimensions and thicknesses : m mm
    - unit weight : kN/m3 N/mm3
    - forces and loads : kN N
    - line forces and line loads : kN/m N/mm
    - pressures and area distributed actions : kPa MPa
    - unit mass : kg/m3 kg/mm3
    - acceleration : km/s2 m/s2
    - membrane stress resultants : kN/m N/mm
    - bending stress resultants : kNm/m Nmm/mm
    - stresses and elastic moduli : kPa MPa(=N/mm2)
  1. Conversion factors
    1 mbar= 100N/m2 = 0.1 kPa

1.7 Symbols

The symbols in EN 1990 and EN 1993-1 apply. Further symbols are given as follows:

1.7.1 Roman upper case letters

For the purposes of this Standard, the following symbols apply:

A cross-sectional area of a pipe
C curvature due to bending
De external diameter
D diameter of the mid-line of pipe wall
E modulus of elasticity
F normal force in the pipe in longitudinal direction
M bending moment in the pipeline conceived as a beam
Mp plastic moment
Mt torsional moment
N effective normal force in a pipeline
V shear force in the cross-section
Q earth pressure
Qd directly transmitted earth pressure
Qi indirectly transmitted earth pressure (support reaction)
Qeq equivalent earth pressure to transform Qi to a quantity Qd that gives the same average shell wall moments in the circumferential direction as Qi
R radius of unstressed bend
10

1.7.2 Roman lower case letters

a ovalisation parameter
fy,d design value of yield strength
fy,nom nominal value of yield strength
fu,nom nominal value of ultimate tensile strength
fy,min specified minimum yield strength
fy,max maximum value of the yield strength
fu,min specified minimum value for the ultimate tensile strength
fu,max maximum value of the ultimate tensile strength
m shell wall moment per unit width
me shell wall moment per unit width at the end of the elastic region
mp full plastic moment per unit width of shell wall
mx, my shell wall moment per unit width in longitudinal and circumferential direction respectively
n shell wall normal force per unit width
np plastic normal force per unit width of shell wall
nx, ny normal force per unit width of shell wall in longitudinal and circumferential direction respectively
pi internal pressure in the pipeline (positive outward)
pe external pressure on the pipeline (negative when acting inward)
p effective pressure: p = pi − pe
r radius of a pipe: r = D/2
t pipe wall thickness
tmin specified minimum wall thickness (nominal wall thickness minus the specified tolerance)
tr, tb pipe wall thickness in the straight pipe and the bend respectively

1.7.3 Greek letters

α, β, γ loading angle and bearing angle for Qd and for Qi and Qcq respectively
v Poisson’s ratio
γF partial factor for actions
γM partial factor for material strength
θ circumferential coordinate around shell
σ direct stress
τ shear stress

1.8 Terminology

Supplementary to Part 1 of EN 1993 (and Part 4 of EN 1991), for the purposes of this Part 4.3, the following terminology applies:

1.8.1 emergency:

A situation which could affect the safe operation of the pipeline system and/or the safety of the surrounding area, requiring urgent action.

1.8.2 incident:

An unexpected occurrence, which could lead to an emergency situation. This includes a leakage of contents.

1.8.3 inspection:

The process of measuring, examining, testing, gauging or otherwise determining the status of items of the pipeline system or installation and comparing it with the applicable requirements.

1.8.4 installation temperature:

The temperature arising from ambient or installation conditions during laying or during construction.

11

1.8.5 maintenance:

The combination of all technical and associated administrative actions intended to keep an item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform its required function.

1.8.6 pig:

A device which is driven through a pipeline by the flow of fluid, for performing various internal activities (depending on pig type), such as separating fluids, cleaning or inspecting the pipeline.

1.8.7 pipeline:

A system of pipework with all associated equipment and stations up to the point of delivery. This pipework is mainly below ground but includes also above ground parts.

1.8.8 pipeline components:

The elements from which the pipeline is constructed. The following are distinct pipeline elements:

1.8.9 pipeline operator:

The private or public organization authorized to design, construct and/or operate and maintain the supply system.

1.8.10 pipework:

An assembly of pipes and fittings/

1.8.11

pressure control system: A combined system including pressure regulating, pressure safety and, where applicable, pressure recording and alarm systems.

12

2 Basis of design

2.1 General

  1. P The design of pipelines shall be in accordance with the provisions in EN 1990 and EN 1991 -1.
  2. Actions should be taken from EN 1991 and EN 1997 (Geotechnical design). Because EN 1991 and EN 1997 do not cover all actions that apply to pipelines, actions should also be taken from relevant reference standards, where appropriate.

2.2 Fundamental requirements for pipelines

NOTE: Because of their relevance for pipelines, the following requirements of EN 1991-1 are mentioned here.

  1. P The pipeline shall be designed and constructed in such a way that:
  2. P The potential damage of pipelines shall be limited or avoided by appropriate choice of one or more of the following:

    NOTE: Possibilities to avoid damage (e.g. by excavators and digging machines) are: increasing the wall thickness, increasing the soil cover, applying adequate signalling above ground, and applying concrete cover slabs.

  3. P The above requirements shall be met by the choice of suitable materials, by appropriate design and detailing and by specifying control procedures for production, construction and use, as relevant for the particular pipeline.

2.3 Reliability differentiation

  1. Different levels of reliability may be adopted for different types of pipelines, depending on their possible economic and social consequences of their collapse.
  2. The choice of minimum reliability should be agreed between the designer, the client and the relevant authority.

    NOTE: The National Annex may provide the minimum level of reliability for different types of pipelines

  3. Reliability may be expressed in terms of factors for the design and/or quality levels for execution. The recommended values given in this Standard are intended for medium safety requirements.

    NOTE: For reliability differentiation, see EN 1998-4. Further guidance can be obtained from relevant standards listed in 1.2.

13

2.4 Methods of analysis

  1. P The methods of analysis for the structural design of pipelines in this Standard shall be appropriate to the limit state being considered.

2.5 Ultimate limit states

  1. P The basic ultimate limit states shall be taken as:
  2. P In addition other relevant limit states according to EN 1993 shall also be checked.

    NOTE: An example of another relevant limit state may be bolt failure in case of flanged connections.

  3. The basic ultimate limit states can be verified by performing the following limit state assessments.
  4. In evaluating the limiting tensile strain due consideration should be taken of:
14

2.6 Serviceability limit states

  1. The relevant basic criteria for the serviceability limit states should be taken as:
15

3 Properties of materials

3.1 General

  1. P Steels used for pipelines shall have adequate mechanical properties and be suitable for welding.
  2. This Standard specifies the requirements for the material properties of plates and welds in terms of mechanical properties only. For further and more detailed guidance and requirements about materials and welding, reference is made to relevant standards listed in 1.2.
  3. The nominal values of material properties given in this Standard should be adopted as characteristic values in design calculations.

3.2 Mechanical properties of pipeline steels

  1. P The nominal value of the yield strength fy,nom and of the ultimate tensile strength fu,nom shall be taken as the specified minimum values fy, min and fu,min in the relevant standard listed in 1.2. The design values for the yield strength fy,d and for the ultimate tensile strength fu,d shall be taken as:

    fy,d = fy,nom/γM     (3.1)

    fu,d = fu,nom/γM     (3.2)

    where γM is the partial safety factor.

    NOTE: The partial factor γM is given in the National Annex. The value γM = 1,00 is recommended.

  2. P The maximum values of the yield strength fy,max and the ultimate tensile strength fu,max shall be specified and shall not be more than Δf higher than the specified minimum values of fy,min and fu,min.

    NOTE: The value Δf for the difference between these strength values may be determined in the National Annex. The value Δf = 50 MPa is recommended.

  3. To ensure adequate ductility, the ratio of ultimate tensile strength to yield strength fu,nom/fy,nom of the steel should not be less than fu,min/fy,min .

    NOTE: The numerical value yy for the ratio between these strength values may be given in the National Annex. The value fu,min/fy,min = 1,1 is recommended.

  4. The ultimate strain εu based on the elongation at failure on a gauge length of Image where A0 is the original cross-sectional area, should not be less than εu, min

    NOTE: The value of εu,min for the ultimate strain εu may be given in the National Annex. The value εu,min = 20 % is recommended.

  5. P The material shall have sufficient fracture toughness to avoid brittle fracture at the lowest service temperature expected to occur within the intended life of the structure. Reference is made to EN 1993 part 1.10 and EN 1594.

3.3 Mechanical properties of welds

  1. P It shall be demonstrated that if yielding of the pipe wall occurs, the plastic strains occur in the plate material and not in the weld zone. 16
  2. It may be assumed that the above requirement is fulfilled if the nominal value of the yield strength of the deposited weld metal is at least x % higher than the specified maximum yield strength of the plate or pipe material.

    NOTE: The value x may be given in the National Annex. The value x = 15% is recommended.

  3. The ductility of the deposited weld metal including the effect of allowed weld discontinuities should be such that the weld zone can experience a strain of at least ε%.

    NOTE: The value for the strain ε may be given in the National Annex. The value ε = 2% is recommended.

  4. The ultimate strength of the deposited weld metal should be at least y % higher than the specified maximum ultimate strength of the plate or pipe material.

    NOTE: The value y may be given in the National Annex. The value y = 15 % is recommended.

3.4 Toughness requirements of plate materials and welds

  1. The requirements for ductility before fracture for the plate materials and welds defined in the preceding sections can be demonstrated by the application of adequate methods as defined in EN 1594.

    NOTE: Until there is a European standard on toughness requirements for pipeline plate materials with weld zones and allowed discontinuities, BS 7910: 1999 “Guide on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures, with amendments October 2000” British Standards Institution, or other national documents can be used.

  2. The provisions of this standard apply only if the quality of the pipe material and welds fulfils the requirements given in EN 1594 or EN 12732 as appropriate.
  3. The limit plastic tensile strain ε,Rk (LS2) should be determined as:

    ε,Rk = z%     Image … (3.3) AC1 Left Arrow

    NOTE: The value z may be given in the National Annex. The value z = 0,5 % is recommended.

3.5 Fasteners

  1. Fasteners should comply with the provisions in EN 1993-1-8.

3.6 Soil properties

  1. Design values for soil properties (soil engineering parameters) should be obtained according to EN 1997 or other relevant reference standards.
17

4 Actions

4.1 Actions to be considered

  1. Basic guidance on actions and combinations of actions including accidental and seismic design situations is given in EN 1990 and EN 1991, EN 1997 and EN 1998.
  2. The following actions should be considered, where appropriate:
  3. Characteristic values of the loads to be considered should be obtained from EN 1991-1 or other relevant reference standards as indicated in 1.1 and 1.2.

4.2 Partial factors for actions

  1. P Partial safety factors shall be based on the required reliability level according to 2.3.

    NOTE: The partial safety factors may be given in the National Annex.

4.3 Load combinations for ultimate limit states

  1. The following combinations of design actions for ultimate limit states should be considered:
    1. Internal pressure: The difference between the maximum internal pressure and the smallest external pressure.

      NOTE: This limit state is generally used first for the determination of the wall thickness.

    2. Internal pressure plus other relevant loads: The internal and external pressure conditions defined in (a), with the other relevant design loads added.

      NOTE: This limit state is generally used next to check critical strains.

    3. External pressure plus other relevant loads: The difference between the maximum external pressure and the smallest internal pressure, with the other relevant design loads added.

      NOTE: This limit state is generally used next to check ovalisation, critical strains, local buckling etc.

    4. Temporal variations in pressure plus other relevant design loads: This case is concerned with cyclic actions on the pipe.

      NOTE: This limit state is generally used last to check for fatigue.

18

4.4 Load combinations for serviceability limit state design

  1. The following combinations of design loads for serviceability limit states should be considered:
    1. Internal pressure plus other relevant loads: The difference between the maximum internal pressure and the smallest external pressure with the other relevant design loads.
    2. External pressure plus other relevant loads: The difference between the maximum external pressure and the smallest internal pressure, with the other relevant design loads added.
19

5 Analysis

5.1 Structural models

5.1.1 Simplified calculation method for ultimate limit state design

NOTE: The simplified calculation method given below is based on the results of an extensive set of more precise calculations.

  1. Provided that the conditions given in (2) to (13) are met, only the load combination (a) of 4.3 (1) need be taken into account (only internal pressure).
  2. The load factors γF should be taken as:

    γF = γF1 for cross-country pipe lines

    γF = γF2 for road, ditch, canal and natural watercourse crossings without flood defences.

    γF = γF3 for road, ditch, canal and natural watercourse crossings with flood defences.

    Image NOTE 1: AC1 Left Arrow The numerical values for γF may be given in the National Annex. The following values are recommended: γF1 = 1,39; γF2 = 1,50; γF3 = 1,82.

    Image NOTE 2: AC1 Left Arrow In many pipeline standards the allowable stress = 72 % of yield stress:
    (1,39 = 1/0,72).

  3. Depending on the design yield strength fy,d the ratio De/tmin should satisfy the following:

    NOTE: The values for De/tmin may be given in the National Annex. The following valules are recommended: val240 = 70; val360 = 80; val415 = 92; val480 = 106.

  4. The depth of cover over the top of the pipeline should not exceed Dcover. This criterion is not applicable if it can be demonstrated that the effective load at the top of the pipe does not exceed Geff..

    NOTE: The values for Dcover and Geff may be given in the National Annex. The following values are recommended: Dcover= 2,5 m and Geff = 65 kN/m2.

  5. The specified wall thickness tspec used in the pipe should not be less than tspec,min mm.

    NOTE: The value for tspec,min may be given in the National Annex. The following value is recommended: tspec,min = 4,8 mm.

    20
  6. The differential settlements from consolidation should not exceed ds mm. This differential settlement should increase gradually from zero to the maximum value and back to zero over a distance of at least 2 • ℓ m as indicated in Figure 5.1.

    NOTE: The values for ds and may be given in the National Annex. The following values are recommended: ds = 100 mm and = 20 m.

    Figure 5.1 Limits on differential settlements with recommended values

    Figure 5.1 Limits on differential settlements with recommended values

  7. The construction settlement should not exceed the values expected in normal pipeline construction practice, in which no special measures have been taken.
  8. The pipeline should not cross potential fracture planes or areas of mining subsidence.
  9. The pipeline section involved should not include bends with a radius smaller than x De.

    NOTE: The value for x may be given in the National Annex.

    The following value is recommended: x = 20.

  10. The maximum difference between the installation temperature and the maximum or minimum service temperature of the pipeline, as applicable, should not exceed T°C.

    NOTE: The value for T may be given in the National Annex. The following value is recommended: T = 35°C.

  11. The overall temperature range should lie between Image T1°C and T2°C AC1 Left Arrow. In the case of frost heave, reference should be made to EN 1594.

    NOTE: The values for Image T1 and T2 may be given in the National Annex. The following values are recommended: T1 = - 40°C and T2 = + 60°C AC1 Left Arrow

  12. In the case where bends with a radius smaller than y De are used, the following criteria should be satisfied:
  13. For crossings that are installed by means of boring or jacking, using building pits and where bends with a radius less than z De are applied in the building pit, the following criteria should be satisfied:

5.1.2 Method of analysis if the conditions for the simplified calculation method are not met

  1. Buried pipelines should be modelled as beams supported by a three-dimensional configuration. In the modelling the springs should represent the properties of the soil, as indicated in Figure 5.2:

    Figure 5.2 Schematic view of a pipeline with earth springs

    Figure 5.2 Schematic view of a pipeline with “earth springs”

  2. In the analysis, account should be taken of the non-linear character of the various earth springs.

    NOTE: In general, a finite element analysis is needed for this system.

  3. The input data for the analysis should be the soil properties, the properties of the pipeline, the imposed settlements (displacements), and other actions.

    NOTE: The required properties of the pipeline relate to the bending moment-curvature diagram and, where torsion occurs, the torsion moment-rotation diagram. Expressions to obtain these diagrams are given in annex A.

    22
  4. From the above three-dimensional beam analysis, the following values should be determined at every cross-section of the pipeline:
  5. More complete checks of the complete set of deformations may be made using a comprehensive elastic-plastic cross section analysis as set out in annex A.

    NOTE: Further guidance and information on limit state design of buried pipelines can be obtained from either annex A; or Gresnigt, A.M. “Plastic Design of Buried Pipelines in Settlement Areas”, HERON, Vol. 31, No.4, 1986; or other publications as given in annex C.

5.2 Ultimate limit state verification

5.2.1 LS1: Rupture

  1. The stresses resulting from the analysis should satisfy the von Mises yield criterion:

    Image

5.2.2 LS2: Plastic strain limitation

  1. The maximum tensile strain εmax should not exceed the limit strain ε,Rk defined in Section 3.4.
  2. It should be demonstrated that the pipe wall with weld zones and allowed discontinuities has the strain capacity (limit strain) required for the structural analysis.

5.2.3 LS3: Deformation

  1. To prevent snap-through buckling of the cross-section, excessive cross-sectional distortion in the form of ovalisation should be limited.
  2. The ovalisation parameter a, given by:

    Image

    should be limited to the value amax given by:

    amax = x De     … (5.11)

    NOTE: The value for x may be given in the National Annex. The following value is recommended: x = 0,05.

    23
  3. Local buckling should be assessed using the critical strain εcr. To evaluate εcr, the ovalisation due to non-uniform earth pressure should first be evaluated using the parameter a, where a is half of the change in the diameter caused by earth pressure. The value of a should then be used to determine the local radius of curvature ro at the most compressed part of the circumference, see figure 5.3. The pressure p should be taken as positive in the case of internal pressure and negative in the case of external pressure.
  4. The critical value of the compressive strain εcr should be obtained from the following:

    Image

    Image

    in which:

    Image

  5. It should be shown that:

    εmaxεcr     … (5.15)

    Figure 5.3 Radius r0 in an ovalised cross section

    Figure 5.3 Radius ro in an ovalised cross section

  6. In pipelines under external pressure, the possible collapse (implosion) of the cross-section should be investigated, using the provisions of EN 1993-1-6.
  7. Where there is potential for overall flexural buckling, the design should be assessed using the provisions of EN 1993-1-1.
24

5.2.4 LS4: Fatigue

  1. The design should satisfy EN 1993-1-9.

    NOTE: Other relevant standards for fatigue loading may be referred to in the National Annex.

5.2.5 LS5: Leakage

  1. The consequences of possible leakage of the contents of the pipeline, due to causes other than rupture of the pipe wall (e.g. due to insufficient tightness in the connections, or due to corrosion or third party activities) should be taken into account in design.
  2. Reference should be made to the relevant reference standards.

5.3 Serviceability limit state verifications

  1. The verification of the serviceability limit states LS6, LS7 and LS8 should satisfy the serviceability criteria concerning ovalisation, deflection, vibration and leakage.
  2. Reference should be made to the relevant reference standards.
  3. Criteria for each serviceability limit state (e.g. in relation to pigging requirements) may be agreed between the designer and the client.
  4. Special limits on leakage may be agreed between the designer, the client and the relevant authority, depending on the design conditions (e.g. the nature of the pipeline and its contents and the environment).

6 Structural design aspects of fabrication and erection

  1. The requirements of the relevant application standards should be met.
  2. For fabrication and erection the relevant clauses of EN1090-2 apply.
25

Annex A: - Analysis of resistances, deformations, stresses and strains of buried pipelines

[informative]

A.1 Procedure and scope of analysis

  1. The analysis procedure generally consists of the phases set out in (2) to (7) below.
  2. Gathering design data.
    Depending on the nature and size of the pipeline transportation system, design data are required for the design and stress engineering processes. These data are defined in detail in relevant reference standards
  3. Scheinatization and sectioning of pipeline for analysis.
    For the purpose of analysis, the pipeline, together with the loads acting on it, is schematized and divided into sections.
  4. Determination of the actions and action combinations to be considered in the analysis and the associated partial factors.
    In principle, each section of the pipeline system should be investigated to determine the effects of the loads referred to in (1). The loads which are relevant to each pipeline section should be determined on this basis. The calculation is based on the design loads. Values of partial factors to be adopted should be taken from relevant reference standards.
  5. Calculation of forces, moments and relative displacements.
    The pattern and magnitude of the forces and moments, and, where necessary, the deformation of the pipeline should be determined, not only as a function of the length of the completed pipeline system but also, where appropriate, as a function of time. This also applies to forces exerted by the pipeline on its environment (the soil, supports, fixed-point and casing structures, etc.).
  6. Calculation of stresses, strains and deformation.
    The positive and negative values for stresses and strains which can occur in the walls of the elements of the pipeline system should be determined, where necessary including the range or amplitudes and frequencies of variations in these stresses and/or strains.
    Where increased stresses occur in pipeline elements (for example at bends), these should be allowed for in the analysis.
    Insignificant stresses, deformations and ranges need not be included in the analysis
  7. Assessment.
    The stresses, strains, deformations and other values obtained by application of the design loads should not exceed the limiting values.

    NOTE: Further information on the subjects in this annex and guidance for practical analysis can be obtained from: A.M. Gresnigt “Plastic Design of Buried Pipelines in Settlement Areas”, HERON, Vol. 31, No.4, 1986, and from other publications as given in annex C.

A.2 Analysis for straight pipes

A.2.1 Definitions of key parameters

Mean diameter D = Det 26
Ovalisation parameter a = (DmaxDmin)/4
Mean radius of a pipe r = D/2
Plastic moment of the pipe cross section Mp = 4 r2t fy
Elastic moment of the pipe cross section Me = π r2t fy
Curvature at the elastic moment of the pipe cross section Image
Shell wall moment per unit width at the end of the elastic region me = t2fy / 6
Full plastic moment per unit width of shell wall mp = t2fy / 4
plastic normal force per unit width of shell wall np = t fy
where fy is to be taken as fy,d  

NOTE: For reasons of simplicity, the indexes in this annex are abbreviated by omitting the d,Rd and ESd notations.

A.2.2 Interaction expressions

  1. Figure A.1 gives an indication of the influence of several other actions such as normal force, shear force, internal pressure and earth loading on the moment - curvature diagram for a straight pipe.

    Figure A.1 Moment - curvature diagrams for a straight pipe

    Figure A.1 Moment - curvature diagrams for a straight pipe

    27
  2. Figure A.2 gives an indication of the possible moment - curvature diagram for a straight pipe loaded with several other actions such as normal force, shear force, internal pressure, earth pressure.

    Figure A.2 Moment - curvature diagram for a straight pipe also indicating other actions

    Figure A.2 Moment - curvature diagram for a straight pipe also indicating other actions

  3. Figure A.3 gives the directly transmitted earth pressure Qd, the indirectly transmitted earth pressure (support reaction) Qi and the equivalent earth pressure Qeq to transform Qi to a quantity Qd that gives the same average shell wall moments in the circumferential direction as Qi.

    Figure A.3 Earth loads Qd, Qi and Qeq acting on the pipeline cross section

    Figure A.3 Earth loads Qd, Q1 and Qeq acting on the pipeline cross section

  4. The full plastic bending resistance Mm of the pipe cross-section of a straight pipe loaded by an external axial force F may be obtained from:

    Image

    Nm = F – p π r2     … (A-2)

    where:

    28
    Mm is the maximum bending moment at full plasticity;
    Nm is the maximum effective normal force at full plasticity.
  5. The resistance under pure bending is given by:

    Image

    in which:

    Mpr = g h Mpl,Rd     … (A-4)

    Image

    Image

  6. The resistance under pure axial compression is given by:

    Image

    in which:

    Npr = g Np     … (A-8)

  7. The factors modifying the fundamental strength in either bending or compression are:

    Mtpr = g Mtp     … (A-9)

    Image

    Mp = 4 r2 t fy     … (A-11)

    Np = 2 π r t fy     … (A-12)

    Vpr = g Vp     … (A-13)

    Image

    Image

    29

    Image

  8. The yield axial force ny per unit width of shell wall is found as follows:

    ny = nyq + nyk + nyp     … (A-17)

    nyq = 0,25 Qd + 0,125 Qi     … (A-18)

    Image

    nyp = p r     … (A-20)

    np = t fy     … (A-21)

  9. The yield moment my per unit width of plate is found as follows:

    my = myq + myk + myp     … (A-22)

    myk = 0,071 · Mm · C · ηo     … (A-23)

    myp = – p r a     … (A-24)

    myq = myqd + myqi     … (A-25)

    Image

    Image

    Image

    mp = 0,25 t2 fy     … (A-29)

  10. The following expressions are of value:

    Image

    Me = π r2t fy     … (A-31)

    30

    Image

A.2.3 Moment - curvature diagram

  1. The elastic part of the moment-curvature diagram, as in figure A.2, may be constructed with the following expressions.

    M = EIred · C     … (A-33)

    where

    EIred     is the reduced (due to ovalisation) bending stiffness of the pipe:

    Image

    a’ is the ovalisation at C = Ce*

  2. The elastic-plastic part of the moment-curvature diagram, as in figure A.2, may be constructed with the following expressions.

    Image

    Image

    εy = fy / E     … (A-37)

    Image

    θ = arcsin(1/μ) with 0 < θπ/2 where μ ≥ 1     … (A-39)

    where:

    M is the bending moment at curvature C;
    C is the curvature of the pipe;
    θ is a parameter depending on the maximum bending strains in axial direction;
    ε is the maximum bending strain in axial direction

    NOTE: The elastic part of the moment-curvature diagram ends at θ = π/2. The bending moment and curvature at this point are then given by (see also figure A1 and A2):

    Image

    Image

31

A.2.4 Calculation of the ovalisation

  1. At curvatures lower than Ce*, the ovalisation and strains in axial and circumferential direction can be obtained by applying the theory of elasticity.
  2. At curvatures larger than Ce*, the ovalisation and strains in axial and circumferential direction should be obtained taking into account the normality principle for deformations.

    NOTE: Guidance can be obtained from: A.M. Gresnigt “Plastic Design of Buried Pipelines”, HERON, Vol. 31, no.4, 1986, and from other publications as given in Annex C.

    NOTE: In the next clauses an approximate method is given, see also NEN 3650.

  3. The ovalisation a is mainly caused by soil pressure, but also bending contributes. The internal pressure reduces ovalisation (“rerounding effect”).
  4. The ovalisation a consists of an elastic part ael and a plastic part apl.

    a = ael + apl     … (A-42)

  5. The elastic part ael may be calculated as follows.

    ael = aqd–el + aqi–el + ac–el

    where:

    aqd,el     is the ovalisation caused by direct earth pressure as is indicated in Figures A.2 and A.3. The earth pressure on top of the cross section equals the supportive earth pressure.

    Image

    aqi,el     is the ovalisation caused by indirect earth pressure as indicated in Figures A.2 and A.3, e.g. support reactions due to uneven settlements.

    Image

    ac,el     is the ovalisation caused by curvature.

    Image

    where:

    kyd is the deflection coefficient dependent on the loading pattern of the direct earth pressure, some values are given in table A.1. See also Figure A.2
    kyi is the deflection coefficient dependent on the loading pattern of the indirect soil load, some values are given in table A.1. See also Figure A.2
    frr is a rerounding factor
    32

    Image

    pcr     is the theoretical value of the implosion pressure

    Image

    EIw is the bending stiffness of the pipe wall per unit length (Nmm2/mm)

    Image

    C is the curvature

    Image

  6. The equations for the ovalisation aqd-el and aqi-el may be applied until the maximum bending moment in the pipe wall in circumferential direction myq equals mp. The equation for ac-el is valid for curvatures up to Ce*.
  7. If in the cross section both direct earth pressure and indirect earth pressure act, the maximum bending moment follows from

    Image

    Table A.1 Deflection and moment coefficients for direct and indirect earth pressure
    (see also figure A.2)
    Deflection coefficient kyd and moment coefficient kmd for direct earth pressure Deflection coefficient kyi and moment coefficient kmi for indirect earth pressure
    α
    (degrees)
    β
    (degrees)
    kyd kmd α
    (degrees)
    γ
    (degrees)
    kyi kmi
    180
    180
    180
    180
    180
    180
    180
    0
    30
    60
    90
    120
    150
    180
    0.116
    0.113
    0.105
    0.096
    0.089
    0.085
    0.083
    0.294
    0.235
    0.189
    0.157
    0.138
    0.128
    0.125
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -
    0
    30
    60
    90
    120
    150
    180
    0.074
    0.071
    0.064
    0.055
    0.048
    0.043
    0.042
    0.239
    0.179
    0.134
    0.102
    0.083
    0.073
    0.070
    0
    30
    60
    90
    120
    150
    0
    30
    60
    90
    120
    150
    0.149
    0.143
    0.122
    0.110
    0.096
    0.086
    0.318
    0.257
    0.207
    0.169
    0.143
    0.129
     
  8. The plastic part apl may be calculated as follows.

    Image

    where

    33
    aqd-pl is the plastic part of the ovalisation caused by direct soil load including rerounding.
    aqi-pl is the plastic part of the ovalisation caused by indirect soil load including rerounding.
    ac-pl is the plastic part of the ovalisation caused by the applied curvature including rerounding.
  9. In most cases the earth loads will be such that the resulting stresses are below the yield stress, so that aqd-pl and aqi-pl are zero. If not, then a plastic cross sectional calculation is needed to determine aqd-pl and aqi-pl.

    NOTE: Guidance can be obtained from: A.M. Gresnigt “Plastic Design of Buried Pipelines”, HERON, Vol. 31, no.4, 1986, NEN3650, and from other publications as given in Annex C.

  10. For ac-pl the following approximate equation may be applied.

    Image

    where:

    Image

    NOTE: Because c2 and g are dependent on the curvature and the ovalisation, an iterative procedure will be needed.

A.2.5 Calculation of the strains

  1. The maximum strain in longitudinal direction may be estimated from

    εX = εxC + εxN     … (A-54)

    where:

    εxC = ±C · r     … (A-55)

    Image

    A     is the cross sectional area.

  2. The maximum strain εy-max in circumferential direction may be estimated from the following approximate method

    εy-max = εy-el + εy-pl     … (A-57)

  3. For the elastic part (εy-elεyield = fy/E):

    Image

    NOTE: The ovalisation at εyield is called ayield.

    34
  4. For the plastic part (εy-pl > εyield = fy/E):

    Image

A.3 Analysis for bends

  1. Reference is made to relevant reference standards and to:
35

Annex B: - Bibliography to National standards and design guides

[normative]

BS 8010 (1989-1993) Code of practice for pipelines. British Standards Institution.

Part 1: Pipelines on land: general.

Part 2: Pipelines on land: design, construction and installation.

Part 3: Pipelines subsea: design, construction and installation.

Part 4: Pipelines on land and subsea: operation and maintenance.

Gresnigt, A.M. (1986) “Plastic design of buried steel pipelines in settlement areas,” HERON, Vol 31, no 4, Delft University of Technology.

Image NEN 3650 (2003-2006) Requirements for pipeline systems

Part 1: General (NEN 3650-1: 2003+A1:2006)

Part 2: Steel (NEN 3650-2: 2003+A1:2006)

Issued by NEN (available in Dutch and in English language). AC1 Left Arrow

BS 7910 (1999) “Guide on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures, with amendments of October 2000”, British Standards Institution.

API-5L : Specification for Line Pipe.

API-5LX : Specification for high-test Line Pipe.

API-5LS : Specification for spiral welded Line Pipe.

API-1104 : Specification for Field Welding of Pipelines.

API-1105 : Recommended Practice on Construction of steel Pipelines.

36

Annex C: - Bibliography

[informative]

C.1 General bibliography on pipelines

Chen, S.L., Li, S.F. (1994) “Study on the nonlinear buckling in thin-walled members with arbitrary initial imperfection”, Thin walled structures, Elsevier Science Limited Vol. 19, pp 253-268.

Corona, E. and Kyriakides, S. (1988) “Collapse of pipelines under combined bending and external pressure”, BOSS, Trondheim, pp 953-964.

Findlay, G.E., and Spence, J. (1979) “Stress analysis of smooth curved tubes with flanged end constraints”, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Vol. 7, 83-103.

Foeken, R.J. van, Gresnigt A.M., (1998). “Buckling and Collapse of UOE manufactured steel pipes”. Offshore and Onshore Supervisory Committee of PRC International, PR-238-9423, Arlington, USA.

Garwood, S.J., Willoughby, A.A., Rietjens, P., (1981) “The application of CTOD methods for safety assessment in ductile pipeline steels”, Conference on Fitness for Purpose Validation of Welded Constructions, November, 1981, London.

Gresnigt, A.M., (1989). “Ultimate strength and deformation capacity of pipelines”. Eighth International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, The Hague, March 19-23, pp 183-191.

Gresnigt, A.M., Foeken, R.J. van, (1990). “Strength and deformation capacity of pipelines loaded by local loads and bending”, Pipeline Technology Conference, Oostende, Belgium, October 1990.

Gresnigt, A.M., Foeken, R.J. van, (1995). “Strength and deformation capacity of bends in pipelines”, International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering (Transactions of The ISOPE), Vol. 5, number 4, December 1995, pp. 294-307.

Gresnigt, A.M., Van Foeken, R.J. (1996). “Experiences with Strain Based Limit State Design in The Netherlands”, Proceedings ASPECT ‘96. Advances in Subsea Pipeline Engineering and Technology, Aberdeen, 27-28 November 1996, pp. 111-134.

Gresnigt, A.M., Foeken, R.J. van, Chen, S. (2000). “Collapse of UOE Manufactured Steel Pipes”. Proceedings of the Tenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE). Seattle. Vol.11, pp. 170-181.

Gresnigt, A.M., Foeken, R.J. van (2001). “Local Buckling of UOE and Seamless Steel Pipes”. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE). Stavanger, Vol. II. pp. 131-142.

Gresnigt, A.M. (2002). “Elastic and Plastic Design of Mitred Bends”. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE). Kitakyushu, Japan.

Guijt, W., Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M., Gresnigt, A.M., Dijkstra, G.J. (2004). “Safety Concept in the New Dutch Pipeline Standard NEN 3650”. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Toulon, France.

37

Kafka, P.G. and Dunn, M.B. (1956) “Stiffness of curved circular tubes with internal pressure”, Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 78, 247-254.

Karman, Th. von (1911) “Über die Formänderung dünnwandiger Rohre, insbesondere federnder Ausgleichrohre”, Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, Band 55, No.45, 1889-1895.

Karamanos S.P. and Tassoulas J.L. (1991) “Stability of inelastic tubes under external pressure and bending”, Journal of engineering mechanics. Vol. 17, No 12, 2845-2861.

Karamanos, S.A., Giakoumatos E., Gresnigt A.M. (2003). “Nonlinear Response and Failure of Steel Elbows under in-Plane Bending and Pressure”. ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology. Vol. 125, November 2003.

Karamanos, S.A., Tsouvalas, D., Gresnigt, A.M. (2005). “Ultimate Bending Capacity and Buckling of Pressurized 90 Deg Steel Elbows”. ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology. Vol. 127, ...... 2005.

Korol, R.M., (1979). “Critical buckling strains of round tubes in flexure”, International Journal of Mechanical Science, Vol. 21, pp. 719-730.

Kyriakides, S., Corona, E. (1991) “On the effect of the UOE manufacturing process on the collapse pressure of long tubes”, Offshore Technology Conference, OTC 6758.

Murphy, C, Langner, C, (1985). “Ultimate pipe strength under bending, collapse and fatigue”, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE), Dallas, February 1985.

Rodabaugh, E.C., and George H.H. (1957) “Effect of internal pressure on flexibility and stress intensification factors of curved pipe or welding elbows”, Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 79.

Schaap, D., Van Foeken, R.J. and De Winter, P.E. (1988) “Deformation capacity of steel tubulars subjected to internal or external pressure”, BOSS, Trondheim, pp. 1271-1283.

Spiekhout, J., (1988) “Fitness-for-Purpose Assessment of Weld Flaws - Application of Various Fracture Mechanics Codes”, Welding Journal, September 1988.

Thomson, G., and Spence, J. (1983) “Maximum stresses and flexibility factors of smooth pipe bends with tangent pipe terminations under in-plane bending”, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 105, 329-335.

Vigness, I. (1943) “Elastic properties of curved tubes”, Transactions of the ASME, 105-120.

Walker A.C., Williams, K.A.J., (1996). “The safe use of strain based criteria for the design and assessment of offshore pipelines”, Proceedings Offshore Pipeline Technology (OPT ‘96-IBC Technical Services LTD London), Amsterdam, February 15-16, 1996.

Whatham, J.F. (1986) Pipe bend analysis by thin shell theory, Journal of applied mechanics, Vol. 53, 153-180.

Yoosef-Ghodsi, N., Kulak, G.L., Murray, D.W., (1995), “Some test results for wrinkling of girth welded line pipe”, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE), Vol. V - Pipeline Technology, Copenhagen, June 18-22, 1995, pp. 379 -388.

38

Zimmerman, T.J.E., Stephens, M.J., DeGeer, D.D., Chen, Q., (1995), “Compressive strain limits for buried pipelines”, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE), Vol. V - Pipeline Technology, Copenhagen, June 18-22, 1995, pp. 365 -378.

C.2 Bibliography on geotechnical engineering

ASCE, (1984) “Guidelines for the seismic design of oil and gas pipelines”, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York.

Audibert, Nymann, (1977) “Soil restraint against horizontal motion of pipes”, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 103, no. GT10, October 1977.

Brinch Hansen, J. (1961) “The ultimate resistance of rigid piles against transversal forces”, Danish Geotechnical Institute, Bulletin 12, Copenhagen.

Brinch Hansen, J. (1970) “A revised and extended formula for bearing capacity”, Danish Geotechnical Institute, Bulletin No. 28, Copenhagen, pp. 5-11.

Clarke, (1967) “Buried pipelines”, McLaren and Sons, London.

Hergarden, H.J.A.M., Rol. A.H. (1984) “Grondonderzoek gedrag buisleiding in klei - onderzoek uitgevoerd te Kesteren in 1984 - Behaviour of pipeline in clay-tests carried out in Kesteren 1984” (in Dutch), Delft Geotechnics, report CO-272040/75.

Hergarden, H.J.A.M. (1992) “Enkele geotechnische aspecten bij de aanleg van leidingen -- Some geotechnical aspects of pipeline construction” (in Dutch), Delft Geotechnics, Report CO-322680/7, March 1992.

Matyas, Davis (1983) “Prediction of the vertical earth loads on rigid pipes”, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 109, No. 2, February 1983.

Spangler, M.G. (1951) “Soil Engineering”, International Textbook Company, Scranton.

Terzaghi, K. (1944) “Theoretical soil mechanics”, 2nd edition 1944, page 194-202.

Terzaghi, K. (1966) “Fundamentals of soil mechanics”, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Thomas, (1978) “Discussion of soil restraint against horizontal motion of pipes”, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 104, No. GT9, September 1978.

Trautmann, O’Rourke, (1985) “Lateral force-displacement response of buried pipe”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 111, No 9, September 1985.

39

Winterkorn, H.F. and Hsai-Yang, (1975) “Foundation Engineering Handbook”, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, London.

40 41