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BULLETIN

OF TIIK

ESSEX INSTITUTE,

1880.

SALEM, MASS. riilNTED AT THE SALEM PRESS. 1881.

YOU^'^T l!K!’Vr:RS!T?

LIBRARY

P»R0/0, UYaH

CONTENTS.

Page.

Regular Meeting, Monday, January 19, 1880, . . . . 1

D. B. Ilagar, lecture on Spelling Reform, notice of, 1. Remarks by Prof, E. S. Morse, 3. Explanation of Wilson’s Ozone Generator an j Diffuser, by James Kimball, 3.

Regular Meeting, Monday, February 16, 1880, .... 3

Regular Meeting, Monday, March 1, 1880, 4

F. W. Putnam, lecture on the former Indians of Southern California, as beai’ing on the origin of the Red Man in America, notice of, 4.

.Meeting, Friday, March 11, 1880, 6

Rev. Robert Collyer, lecture on an Episode in the life of Edward Fair- fax, notice of, 6. ,

Regular Meeting, Monday, March 15, 1880, .... 9

Thomas H. Walker, lecture on the Philosophy and Theory of Punish- ment, notice of, 9.

A List of the Birds of the Hudson Highlands, with annotations ; by Edgar A. Mearns (^continued), 11

Regular Meeting, Monday, April 5, 1880, 26

Remarks of Prof. Edward S. Morse on the persistence of Korean Art» in Japanese pottery, 26.

Regular Meeting, Monday, April 19, 1880, 26

Nathan Crosby, lecture on Essex County and Essex County Men, no- tice of, 27.

Regular Meeting, Monday, May 3, 1880, 27

Annual Meeting, Monday, May 17, 1880, 28

Election of Officers, 28; Remarks by F. W. Putnam, 29; Retrospect of tlie Year, 30; Members, 30; Field Meetings, 32; Excursions, 33; Lec- tures, 33; Meetings, 35; Concerts, 35; Library, 36; Horticultural Exiiibition, 47; Art Exliibitions, 48; Museum, 52; Publications, 53; Manuscripts, 53; Financial, 53.

Meeting, Monday, May 24, 1880, 56

An Informal Talk on Sundry Architectural and Art Topics, by Edward A. Silsbee, 56

Notice of the late Rev. Jones Very, . . . . . .74

(iii)

IV

CONTENTS

Reg-niar Meeting, Monday, June 21, 1880,

Kemarks on the death of Mr. Caleb Cooke, bv the President, 70, Rev. E. H. Willson, Mr. John Robinson, 78, Dr. Geo. A. Perkins, 79, Mr. T. F. Hunt, fO; Resolutions, 80.

Notes on tlie Flora of Essex County, Mass., with Sketches of the early Botanists, and a list of the Publications on these sub- jects, by John Robinson,

Field Meeting at the Willows, Salem Neck, Tuesday, June 22,

1880,

Arrival of John Winthrop, two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of, 98.

A List of the Birds of the Hudson Highlands, with annotations; by Edgar A. Mearns {contimied),

Regular Meeting, July 5, 1880,

liegular Meeting, July 19, 1880,

Field Meeting at Bradford, Friday, July 30, 1880,

Bradford Academy, 1.30; Hannah Duston Monument in Haverhill, 13-2; Haverhill Public Library, 1.3.3; Afternoon Session. 131; Remark.s of Dr. George Cogswell, 13.'), Rev. JMr. Kingsbury, Prof. E. S. Morse, J. D. Tewksbury, Prof. Hall, Mr. Fish, John W. Perkins, Mr. Emery, John Robinson, 13(5.

Field Meeting at Lowell Island, Thursday, Aug. 12, 1880, .

Sketch of Lowell Island, 137; Afternoon Session, 1G.5; Remarks by the Presiilent, 1(55, Rev. Sereno D. Gammell, 1(5(5, Mr. H. Saze, 1(57, Dr. George A. Perkins, 1(58. Prof. E. S. Morse, 169, Rev. Joseph Banvard, 170, Mr. N. A-. Horton, 170.

The gradual dispersion of certain Mollusks in New England, by Edward S. Morse,

Excursion to New Castle, N. IL, Friday and Saturday, Sep- tember 10 and 11, 1880,

Evening Session, 177; Remarks by the President, 177; Account of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona, by F. W. Putnam, 178; the Homestead of Gov. Benning Wentworth, 181,

BULLETIN

OF THE

ESSEX I1:TSTZTTJTE.

VoL. 12. ' Salem, January -June, 1880. Nos. 1-6.

Regular Meeting, Monday, Jan’y 19, 1880.

Meeting this evening. President in the chair. Rec- ords read. Donations and correspondence announced.

Mrs. Margaret Braden and Arthur West, both of Salem, were elected resident members.

Vice President, D. B. Hagar, read a paper on Spell- ing ReformJ*^ He commenced by saying that it was too late for sensible men to laugh at the spelling reform. He named a large number of eminent scholars in England and in America who are its advocates, and designated prominent educational bodies who have officially favored its consideration. He alluded to several well known lead- ing newspapers as having adopted some of the proposed new spelling, mentioning the Chicago Trihnne, the Utica Herald, the W. Y, Independent, the Journal of Education and the Home Journal, and stated what had been done by educational associations in behalf of the reform. The following propositions were then advocated s

(1) That spoken language necessarily precedes written

ESSEX INST. BULLETIN. XU 1 (1)

2

language. (2) That the grand purpose of written lan- guage is to represent to the eye the spoken language, as heard by the ear. (3) That the written language should be so constructed that the transition from the spoken to the written, and, conversely, from the written to the spoken, should be simple, uniform, and truthful. (4) That, to this end, a phonetic system is the most direct, easy, and rational. (5) That in devising a written language for a people hitherto without one, no sensible scholar would, at the present day, think of framing it on any principle other than the phonetic. (6) That the present orthog- raphy of the English language is so lawless, so perplex- ing, so confounding to all rational expectation, that the learner is compelled, from first to last, to guess at the pronunciation of every new word he sees ; that he cannot be certain of correctness until assured by his teachers, and possibly not even then.

Under this last point, numerous illustrations of irregu- larity and inconsistence in English spelling were given. It was shown that the present orthography of the English language employs sixty-two signs, which have at least one hundred and fifty-nine uses ; whereas a pure pho- netic system would, therefore, save a vast amount of time in learning to read and spell.

Mr. Hagar then proceeded to answer the objections usually urged against a reform of English orthography, endeavoring to show that they were of little importance.

The paper closed by answering the question. What can be done toward accomplishing the desired reform ? Some- thing could be done in the following ways : (1) By the general discussion of the subject among teachers and other friends of education. (2) By establishing spelling- reform associations throughout the country. (3) By concert of action among State and County educational

3

associations, (4) By procuring the appointment of Na- tional and State Commissions to consider and report on the subject. (5) By personally adopting in our corre- spondence the spellings recommended by the American Philological Association. (6) By freely using the pub- lic press toward setting before the public the objects and merits of the proposed reform. (7) By teaching the childreji in the public schools to read from a phonetic text. (8) By cherishing the pluck and aggressiveness of ear- nest reformers.

Prof. E. S. Morse spoke of the Japanese language, showing that students there had to surmount even greater obstacles than obtain in the present English system.

Mr. James Kimball exhibited and explained Wilson’s Ozone Generator and Diffuser. This apparatus is intended to be used in destroying the impurities in the air of close and poorly ventilated rooms, also the noxious emanations produced by the decomposition of animal and vegetable substances. It is a machine holding six small cups partly filled with water, a stick of prepared phosphorus being placed in each cup. Upon the ignition of the phosphorus a cover of porous porcelain is placed over the cups and the apparatus is prepared to do its work.

Kegular Meeting, Monday, FebruarI- 16, 1880.

President in the chair. Records read. Donations and correspondence announced.

At an ‘adjournment on Tuesday, Feb. 17, Charles Top- pan, of Salem, was elected a member.

4

The Secretary read a communication from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, inviting the Essex Insti- tute to select one or more delegates to attend the celebra- tion of its 100th anniversary to be held in Boston on the 26th of May, 1880.

On motion of Mr. F. W. Putijam, the selection of delegates was referred to a committee, consisting of the President and Secretary.

A similar invitation was read from the Minnesota His- torical Society, which will celebrate the 200th anniversary of the discovery of the Falls of St. Anthony, on the 3rd day of July, 1880, to send a representative on that occa- sion. The subject was referred to the same committee with power to act.

Regular Meeting, Monday, March 1, 1880.

Meeting this evening. The President in the chair. Records read. Donations and correspondence announced.

Vice President F. W. Putnam made a communication of peculiar interest, but of which only a brief abstract of some portions is here given. His subject was "The former Indians of Southern California, as bearing on the origin of the Red Man in America.”

After giving an account of the discovery of the Penin- sula of California, in 1534, by an expedition fitted out by Cortes, he gave an historical resume of the military ex- peditions to Upper California, the establishment of the missions by the Jesuits and Franciscans, and of their de- grading influence on the Indians.

He then called attention to the facts relatinsf to the antiquity of man on the Pacific coast, and to the importance

5

of the discovery in California of human remains and of the works of man under beds of volcanic material, where they were associated with the remains of extinct post-pliocene animals, and to the necessity of looking to this early race for much that it seems otherwise impossible to account. He thought that what is called the ''Eskimo element,” in the physical characters and arts of the southern Cali- fornians, was very likely due to the impress from a primi- tive American stock, which is probably to be found now in its purest continuation in the Innuit. In this connec- , tion he dwelt upon the probability of more than one type of man. In following out this argument, he called atten- tion to the distinctive characters in different tribes of In- dians on the Pacific coast, and stated his belief that they had resulted from an admixture of the descendants of dif- ferent stocks. The Californians of three hundred years ago, he thought, were the result of development by contact of tribe with tribe through an immense period of time, and that the primitive race of America, which was as likely autochthonous and of pliocene age, as of Asiatic origin, had stamped its impress on the people of California. The early races of America he believed were dolichocepali, and the short-headed people he thought were made up of a succession of intrusive tribes in a higher stage of devel- opment, which in time overran the greater part of both North and South America, conquering and absorbing the long-headed people, or driving them to the least desirable parts of the continent. He thought that the evidence was conclusive that California had been the meeting ground of many distinct tribes of the widely spread Mongoloid stock ; for in no other way could he account for the re- markable commingling of customs, arts and languages, and the formation of the large number of petty tribes

6

that existed in both Upper and Lower California when first known to the Spaniards.

The speaker then gave a review of the arts of the Cali- fornians and the physical characters and customs of the people, showing that, notwithstanding the absence of pottery, the tribes, when first known, had passed through the several stages of savagery and had reached the lower status of barbarism, as defined by Mr. L. H. Morgan in his "Ethnical periods.”

Mr. Putnam concluded by calling attention to the re- cent explorations of the coast of southern California and , the adjacent islands, by the expedition under Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler of the U. S. Engineers, in charge of the Survey West of the 100th Meridian, and the extended explorations of the Santa Barbara Islands which had been conducted by the Peabody Museum of ArchEeology at Cambridge. The results of these explorations, he stated, were now embodied in the seventh volume of the Reports of the Survey under the charge of Lieut. Wheeler, and published, by authority of Congress, under the direction of the Chief of Engineers, U. S. A.

Friday, March 11, 1880.

Meeting this evening. The President in the chair.

Rev. Robert Collyer, of New York, read an interest- ing paper entitled "An Episode in the life of Edward Fairfax.”

The President, before introducing the lecturer of the evening, briefly alluded to William Fairfax, a lineal de-

7

scendaiit of Thomas, the first Lord Fairfax, who was an elder brother of Edward, an episode in whose life is the subject of the paper under consideration. William Fair- fax was the son of Hon. Henry Fairfax, sheriff of York- shire, who was the son of Henry, the fourth Lord Fairfax. . Having received the appointment of collector of the port of Salem, he came to Salem in 1725 from the Bahamas, where he had married Sarah, daughter of Major Walker, and was appointed Chief Justice of the Island. His wife died in Salem in 1731, and subsequently he married Deborah, daughter of Francis and Deborah (Gedney) Clarke. In 1734 he accepted an offer from his cousin Thomas, the sixth Lord Fairfax, to be the superintendent of the estates in Virginia, which he had inherited from his mother, who was a daughter of Lord Culpepper. He then removed thither and took up his residence first in Westmoreland County, but subsequently removed to a plantation called Belvoir, near Alexandria.

During his residence in Salem he occupied the house which was taken down some eight years since, on the western corner of Essex and Cambridge streets, for the erection on the site of a more eligible mansion. The house was then owned by Philip English, or his daughter Susannah Touzel.

For a more extended notice of the Clarke Family and its connection with the Fairfax, the reader is referred to a notice of the Clarke and Gedney families, prepared by H. F. Waters, and printed in the Historical Collections of the Essex Institute, Vol. XVI, part 4.

Mr. CoLLYER gave at first a very graphic account of the ancient seat of the Fairfax family at Denton Park in Yorkshire. He spoke of several of the members of the family, particularly Thomas, the third Lord Fairfax,

8

who was the great General of the Parliament Army, 1645 to 1650 born in Denton, 17 Jan’y, 1611-12, died at Belburgh, near York, 12 Nov., 1671, and Thomas the sixth Lord Fairfax who resided for many years on his estates in Virginia and was the intimate friend and patron of Washington and who died at Greenway Court near Winchester, Va., in 1781, aged ninety-one years.

Edward Fairfax, the poet, born at Denton, Yorkshire, and died in the Parish of Fewston about 1631. The consideration of his writings was the leading and principal topic discussed in this communication. He seems to have preferred a life of study and retirement to that of military service in which his brothers and other members of the family were distinguished. Having married he lived at Fewston and there spent his time in literary pursuits. His best known production is a translation of Tasso’s poem of "Jerusalem Delivered,” which a^Dpeared in 1600 and was received with enthusiastic and continued appro- bation. Its popularity has revived in the present century and several editions have appeared in England and the United States. His work on demonology entitled "A Discourse of Witchcraft, as it was acted in the family of Mr. Edward Fairfax of Fewston, in the county of York, in the year 1621,” was particularly noticed and fully ex- plained, giving a very interesting and instructive sketch of the condition of witchcraft at that period.

Edward Fairfax was a firm believer in witchcraft. He imagined that some of his children had been bewitched ; and he had some of the witches brought to trial, though without obtaining a conviction. He, however, only shared in the common superstitions of the age and was settled in the conscience of having the sure ground of God’s word to warrant all he believed, and the commendable or- dinances of the English church to approve all he practised.

9

Regular Meeting, Monday, March 15, 1880.

Regular meeting this evening. President in the chair. Records read. Correspondence and donations announced.

Hon. Thomas H. Walker of Pottsville, Penn., read an interesting paper on "The Philosophy and Theory of Punishment.” To this subject he had given much time, wide research and serious reflection. He began by alluding to the lax system of prison discipline which prevailed in Europe a century ago, when the jails were nothing but moral pest-houses, where drunkenness and prostitution were the pastime of the inmates ; where the innocent and guilty were huddled together in common quarters. At this time Howard, the great apostle of prison reform, came upon the scene of action in England. He visited most of the prisons in< Europe and presented such a startling array of facts in reference to prison life, that he was summoned before Parliament and examined with great particularity in regard to his investigations.

The result was the appointment of a Parliamentary com- mission and the establishment of the true theory of prison discipline, the reformation of the criminal and the pro- tection of society. Human nature was the same inside the prison as outside, actuated by the same motives and resentments. The criminal should, therefore, when prac- ticable, be sentenced to solitary confinement at labor : solitary confinement in order that he may have opportu- nity to repent of the enormity of his crimes and his re- sponsibility to the State, and that any good impressions which may be created shall not be dispelled by the scoffs and frivolity of the hardened criminals; and labor, as well as solitude, that he may be taught the value of industry, and learn to appreciate the blessing of the

10

sentence pronounced upon man ”In the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat thy bread.” Brief terms of improve- ment as a rule were advocated, especially in the case of the young, and at this point the very groundwork of the whole system was reached. The intellectual and moral education of the young was the most effective method of reform. Crime was hereditary like any other disease ; our penitentiaries and jails are crowded with the ignorant and depraved, and it would be good economy for the state to gather up the homeless and fatherless children in our large cities, and endeavor to make good men and women of them. There has been a great advance in pro- viding for the physical comfort and treatment of the inmates of our prisons. The sick are cared for in well- lighted and cheery infirmaries. The insane criminals are no longer confined in dungeons and fettered with chains, but are sent to asylums for appropriate treatment. But we need go a step farther ; crime is a mental disease and needs a careful diagnosis for its successful eradication, and our system of prison discipline has much to learn in this respect.

The lecturer closed with an eloquent tribute to the memory of Howard, to whom the world owes so much for the alleviation of prison discipline.

At the adjournment on Tuesday, March 16, Mrs. Jerome Carter and Miss L. F. Tyler, both of Salem, were elected members.

Votes of thanks were passed to Rev. Robert Collyer, of New York, for his interesting paper "An Episode in the life of Edward Fairfax,” and to Hon. Thomas H. "Walker, of Pottsville, Penn., for his valuable paper on "Prison Discipline.”

A List of the Birds of the Hudson Highlands, with Annotations,

By Edgar A. Mearns.

[Continued from page 204, Vol. XI.]

72. .iSjgiotlius linaria {Linne). Eed-poll Linnet; Lesser Eed-poll. An occasional winter visitant; sometimes very abundant.

In 1874, the Lesser Eed-polls appeared in flocks about the first of December, and were very abundant until April. For some time after their first appearance, very few adults were seen, nearly all being young birds ; but soon old males with rosy breasts and ruby crowns began to come in immense flights, till the swamps of birch-trees which they inhabited, and upon whose seeds they fed, were absolutely swarming with them. So great were their numbers that the supply of birch seeds soon gave out, and then they scattered over the entire region, feeding largely upon seeds of the alder, and of various weeds. During the month of March, the Eed-polls far exceeded in numbers the aggregate of any single species that I have ever seen. They were very tame, feeding close to the roadsides and in yards about houses ; and, go where one would, they were always found in abundance. They were in full song during the last month of their stay, and the males were in particularly handsome plumage. Their notes resemble those of the American Goldfinch ( Chrysomitris tristis) ; but their flight is swifter, and less undulating. They are easily domesticated, and make nice pets.

Mr. William C. Osborn shot a female, on November 9, 1878, near Garrisons ; it was feeding in company with the Tit-lark {Anthus ludo- vicianus'), in a weedy field near the Indian Brook.

I saw a single Eed-poll in a birch-tree in the Central Park, N. Y., on December 20, 1878. During the last week in December and the first day of January (1878-79), they were quite numerous all through the Highlands. Nearly all of the specimens shot were young males, though one or two adult males and females were secured. Dr. Fisher, on the other hand, found only females, at the same time, at Sing Sing, N. Y. On February 8, 1879, Dr. Clinton L. Bagg found a number of Eed-polls in some weedy fields on Ward’s Island, N. Y.

Dimensions. Average measurements of fifty-seven specimens: length, 5*32; stretch, 8*68; wing, 2’80; tail, 2*32; culmen, *36; tarsus, •56 ; middle toe, *36 ; its claw, *23.

(11)

12

73, Chrysomitris pinus {Wilson). Pine Goldfinch; Pine Linnet. An occasional winter visitant ; sometimes a winter resident, and abundant.

In 1874 the Pine Linnets were found in the hemlocks, feeding upon the cones, as early as October 16. They were frequently met with throughout the winter in large flocks in the alder swamps, accompany- ing flocks of Red-poll Linnets. Since then I have only seen them on two occasions: in Lewis County, N. Y., January 1, 1878; and on February G (same year), when they were numerous at Fort Montgom- ery (four miles south of Highland Falls), associating and feeding with large flocks of Yellowbirds {Chrysomitris tristis) upon the cones of the hemlock.

A specimen was taken by Mr. Frederic S. Osborn at Garrisons, October 17, 1874; and Mr. William C. Osborn took specimens there on November 16, 1878. Mr. Theodore Roosevelt took it August 27, 1874, in Franklin County, N. Y.^

Dr. C. Hart Merriam’s notice of the “Breeding of the Pine Linnet in Northern New York,” published in the “Forest and Stream and Rod and Gun” (Vol. X, No. 24, p. 463, July 18, 1878), is so interesting that I cannot forbear transcribing it entire: “Few birds are more erratic in their habits than the siskin or pine linnet. Occurring to- day, perhaps, in such numbers that one soon tires of shooting them, they are gone on the morrow, and years may elapse before one is seen again. There is, in their melancholy che-a, uttered at intervals as small flocks pass in short, waving swoops, far overhead, something sadly suggestive of the cold bleak winds that sweep their northern homes. Yet they are warmly clad, and seem rather to enjoy the wintry blasts that compel most birds to seek a milder clime ; and their roaming movements are apparently governed more by some idiosyn- crasy in their roving dispositions, and abundance or scarcity of food, than by the severity of the season in the region from which they came.

During the past winter and spring they literally swarmed in Lewis County, N. Y., and thousands of them bred throughout the heavy evergreen forests east of Black River, while many scattered pairs nested in suitable hemlock and balsam swamps in the middle district. They breed remarkably early, and construct large, compact nests, which are usually placed high up on some hemlock or spruce, and well concealed from view. I know of no nest, of equal size, so hard to And. After days of patient search in the evergreen swamps of this vicinity (Locust Grove), Mr. Bagg and myself discovered but a

The Summer Birds of the Adirondacks in Franklin County, N. Y. By Theo* dore Roosevelt, Jr., and H. D. Minot.

13

single nest. On the 13th of April we were hunting in a low swamp, near White River, when a solitary pine linnet attracted our attention by hopping about on some fallen logs. In a few moments she flew into a large hemlock, which stood apart from the rest, and immedi- ately disappeared. After carefully looking over the entire tree, a limb at a time, Mr. Bagg noticed a bunch of something almost com- pletely concealed by a cluster of small branches. We were not sure that it was a nest at all till a well-aimed stick drove off the parent bird, which was shot and proved to be the female. With great diffi- culty the nest was secured, and it contained, at that early date (April 13), two nearly fledged young. It was tightly saddled on a large limb, about thirty feet from the ground and nearly fifteen feet from the trunk of the tree, and was so nicely hidden that, from a limb directly above, I could not see it at all. One of the young was skinned, while the other now constitutes a contented member of my sister’s “happy family,” which previously consisted of an oriole {Icterus baltimore), three thistlebirds {Chrysomitris tristis) and a nonpareil {Cyanospiza ciris). He attained his full growth shortly after his capture, and has since thrived on a mixed diet, though, like his cousins the goldfinches, showing a decided preference for the thickly-seeded spikes of the common plantain {Plantago major) . Also, like his brigh’ter-plumaged companions, he constantly raises and lowers the occipital feathers when at all alarmed.

In plumage he difiers from the adult bird, in having the belly marked with yellow, the wing-bars ochraceofls instead of whitish, and the upper parts decidedly tinged with rufus. This rufus cast is due to the fact that the bark-centred feathers of the back are, in the young, margined with fulvous-brown, which is not the case with the old bird. The nest is a very bulky structure for so small a bird, and its' rough exterior, loosely built of hemlock twigs, with a few sprigs of pigeon moss {Polytrichum) interspersed, is irregular in outline, and measures about six inches in diameter. The interior, on the contrary, is com- pactly woven into a sort of felt, the chief ingredients of which are thistledown and the fur and hair of various mammals. The cavity is lined with horsehair, and measures two inches and a quarter in diameter by an inch and a quarter in depth. This nest is much more flat than that described by Dr. Brewer^ from Cambridge, Mass., for it measures but two inches in height at its highest point. A consid- erable mass of dung adheres to the small twigs at one point in its exterior, showing that the bird always “headed” the same way, and was not particularly cleanly in her habits. From the size of the

* Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, Vol. I, p. 482, 1874.

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young it is clear that this nest could not have been completed much later than the middle of March.

Not content to let the season pass without making a greater effort to secure their eggs, I accepted on the 15th of April, an invitation from my brother, C. Collins Merriam, to accompany him on an excur- sion through the densely timbered region about Otter Creek (near the eastern border of Lewis County) and Big Otter Lake (Herkimer County), from which it takes its origin. This entire district lies within the area commonly known as “Brown’s Tract,” and is Canadian in fauna. Never before at any locality have I seen a species of bird represented by such immense numbers of individuals as here attested the abundance of the pine finch. In every part of the forest, from early in the morning till after the sun had disappeared in the west, there was not a moment that their voices were not heard among the pines and spruce trees overhead. And yet, though among them several days, we were not able to discover a single nest. Never have I searched more faithfully for the eggs of any species, and never has my diligence been rewarded with less success. I at first made a systematic survey of a large number of trees, taking a limb at a time, and then climbed so many that I was barely able to get back to camp, but with no better results.

Their nests are placed so high and amidst such thick evergreen foliage that it is almost impossible to find them. As illustrating the number of this species as well as of the red and white-winged cross- bills {Loxia curvirostra var. Americana and L. leucoptera) , it may be worth recording that after firing twenty-two small charges of fine dust shot at the cross-bills as they settled into the top of a single dead hemlock, I picked up fifty-one birds, of which twenty-eight were red cross-bills, eight white-winged, and fifteen pine linnets. I aimed at cross-bills only, killing the linnets by chance. Mr. A. J. Dayan was so fortunate as to secure two sets of their eggs from among the pines near Lyon’s Falls (in the Black River Valley). The first was com- pleted March 11, and contained but three eggs on the 18th. The second contained two fresh eggs April 20, and was left till the 25th, but no more were deposited.”

W Dimensions. Average measurements of eleven specimens: length, 6-00; stretch, 8*63; wing, 2-76; tail, 1*90; culmen, *43; gape, *47; tarsus, *62 ; middle toe, *45 ; its claw, *23.

74. Astragalinus tristis {Linne). American Goldfinch; Yellowbird. a permanent resident; breeds; common.

This pretty species, in winter, associates in fiocks, feeding upon the seeds of birch, alder and hemlock, besides those of numerous weeds. They are not generally recognized in their plain, but neat winter dress, as the gayly-attired Yellowbirds of summer. In winter.

15

large numbers are sold in the New York markets, in bunches, under the name of “reed-birds.”

Dimensions. Average measurements of twenty-nine specimens: length, 5*10; stretch, 8-83; wing, 2*82; tail, 1*95; culmen, -40; gape, •43; tarsus, *54; middle toe, *42; its claw, *21.

75. Plectrophanes nivalis {Linne). Snow Bunting; White Snowbird. An irregular winter visitant. It sometimes arrives early in November, and remains until March. Mr. Thomas W. Wilson pro- cured specimens on the railroad, at Constitution Island, as early as November 8, 1875. Mr. William Church Osborn saw them near Gar- risons, on November 9, 1878. I have seen flocks on the railroad as late as March 12 (1875).

Large numbers of these white-clad visitors from Arctic climes oc- casionally appear upon the ice of the frozen Hudson: always in severely cold weather, and very often during snow-storms. During the latter part of the winter of 1874-5, when skating up the river, I found large flocks frequenting the sleigh crossings on the Hudson; and smaller bands were numerous along the railroad upon the left bank. I encountered the first flock near Fishkill Landing, where they were feeding, on the sleigh track crossing the river. A number of them were brought down by the discharge of both barrels of my piece, and most of those left alighted upon the nearest trees on shore, but a few returned to their wounded companions, standing erect beside them, and uttering their loud call-note, as if entreating them to come away. They allowed me to come very near before they would forsake their unfortunate companions, and only left them when life was ex- tinct, unless sooner driven away. When these had rejoined the flock upon the bank, the entire body proceeded northward. Subsequently, the species was common all along the Hudson. I did not molest them again, but took good care of the wounded ones, and afterward brought them safe home. They seemed starved, and ate greedily. Their wounds healed very quickly, and, in a few days, they were able to fly about. Soon they became very tame, and would come upon a table to be fed. They were released in the dining-room, where they spent most of the time among some house plants, at the windows ; but, from their visits to the table during meals, they became a source of annoyance, and were shut up at those times. Towards spring they became restless, and struggled to get out of their cages, and, on being released, flew to the windows, pecked the glass, and uttered mournful cries.

Upon the railroad, a few flocks are commonly found spending the winter. These soon become begrimed, almost beyond recognition, by contact with the grease and dirt of the track; but they become very fat, for they are abundantly supplied with food, the grain that

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drops through chinks in the cars. Contrary to their usual habits, they are quite arboreal, spending most of the time upon trees, above the track, only descending occasionally to fill their crops, between the passage of trains. Among the mountains on the right bank of the river, I have rarely seen them. When shooting there on December 30, 1878, a fiock of five flew overhead, uttering their wild notes, which seem to me to have a very wintry significance, which is quite in keep- ing with their white plumage and boreal habitat. They are said to occur occasionally at West Point.

The Snow Bunting breeds in the Arctic regions of Europe, Asia and America. A nest, with its complement of four eggs, taken at Akreyri, Iceland, June 13, 1874, was sent to me, together with a number of odd eggs, by Herr Alfred Benzon, of Copenhagen, and I take advantage of this opportunity to describe them. The nest is quite bulky ; com- posed largely of dry grasses, with considerable long, fine, whitish hair interwoven and lining the inside ; also a few feathers of some water- fowl, and some of those of its own species. It was built upon the ground, and still has some earth adheriug to it. Its external diam- eter is about 6*00 inches, internal, nearly 3 00; depth, 2-40 externally, and 1*25 internally. The eggs belonging to this set, four in number, were all accidentally broken, but I have mended one of them perfectly, and the rest will answer for the purpose of description. They closely resemble each other in coloration; their ground-color is distinctly greenish-white, quite evenly marked with blotches of pale purplish- brown, and less numerous dashes of umber-brown ; the spotting is a little more distinct at their larger ends. The mended egg measured •88 by *65 of an inch.

Seven eggs, taken at Akreyri, Iceland, in 1872, are now before me. Their ground-color varies from pale greenish to dirty white ; some are so thickly covered with rusty -brown markings as almost to conceal the ground; others are sparsely or thickly spotted with dark umber- brown or sepia, sometimes aggregated at the larger end, sometimes arranged circularly about that extremity, and sometimes pretty uni- formly distributed over the whole egg. They measure, respectively, •94 X *67; -94 X -68; *90 X -64; *91 X *63; *85 X *65; -85 X *66; -88 X -62.

Dimensions. Average measurements of ten specimens : length, 6’88; stretch, 12*47; wing, 4*07; tail, 2*70; culmen, *45; tarsus, *83.

76. Passereulus savanna {Wilson). Savanna Sparrow. Common during spring and autumn ; a few are seen during summer, but none in winter. It will probably prove to be a continuous resi- dent; but of rare occurrence during the breeding season, and in winter. During migrations they are especially numerous upon the marshes. They make a whirring noise in flight, are not shy, and their note is a low tweet.

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Dimensions. Average measurements of nine specimens : length,

5- 68; stretch, 9-10; wing, 2-62; tail, 2-09; culmen, *43; gape, -47; tarsus, -80.

77. PooBcetes gramineus (Gmelin). Bay- winged Sparrow. A summer resident; breeds. Arrives in March (30, 1878), and stays till November. It is found in old, weedy fields, and has a pretty little song in the spring.

Dimensions.— Average measurements of eleven specimens : length,

6- 12; stretch, 10-35; wing, 3 06 ; tail, 2*38.

78. Coturniculus passerinus (^Wilson). Yellow-winged Sparrow. A summer resident; breeds. Abundant in most parts of the Hudson Valley. In this vicinity there are few localities which suit its habits, and it is, consequently, rare. Mr. Wm. Church Osborn first apprised me of its occurrence, near Garrisons, in some high, sandy fields, where it breeds every summer. A female shot there. May 18, 1878, contained a full-sized ovum.

Dimensions. Average measurements of three specimens : length, 5 38; stretch, 8-52: wing, 2-38; tail, 1-79; culmen, -47; gape, -51; tarsus, -87; middle toe, -57 ; its claw, *15.

79. Ammodramus caudacutus {Gmelin). Sharp-tailed Finch. I have only found it during the month of October (16, 1874; 12, 1877), and at a single locality on the salt marsh that joins Cou- sook Island to the west shore. Mr. Wm. Church Osborn shot a fine male specimen, in the same place, on October 12, 1878.

Dimensions. Average measurements of two specimens ; length, 5-50; stretch, 7-50; wing, 2-24; tail, 2*00; culmen, -46; gape, *54; tarsus, -87 ; middle toe and claw, *80.

80. Melospiza palustris (B7/sow). Swamp Sparrow. A sum- mer resident; breeds. Arrives from the south in March, and stays till December. Occasionally seen in early winter. It will probably be found to be an occasional winter resident in the Highlands, as it is lower down the Hudson. It is found in swampy places inland, about the shores of ponds, and, most abundantly, on the salt marshes along the river. It builds its nest in a tussock of grass, and lays its eggs about the last of May (23, 1877). Its song is pretty, and difiers from those of our other Sparrows. Mr. Francis Butterfass showed me an albinistic specimen that was about one-half white, which he shot at Cold Spring, on the Hudson.

Dimensions. Average measurements of fourteen specimens : length, 5-89; stretch, 7 90; wing, 2-34; tail, 2-32; culmen, *46; gape, *49; tarsus, -86; middle toe, -61; middle toe and its claw, -85.

81. Melospiza fasciata ( iriVsoji). Song Sparrow. An abun- dant resident species ; breeds. Always present throughout even the severest winters, in favorable situations ; its abundance and disper-

ESSEX INST. BULLETIN. xil 2

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Sion depending on the character of the winter. But these hardy northerners depart in February, and are succeeded by the hosts of its species which make up the great northward migration, which begins late in February. It commences to build in April, and its first clutch of eggs is commonly deposited late in that month. The nest may be found in various situations frequently attached to rushes in the marshes. On April 27, 1878, a pair of Song Sparrows were incubating their eggs, in an old nest of the Red-winged Blackbird {Agelmis pli(£niceus). In the same season, young were seen flying by May 18. It is not uncommon to find it sitting upon a late brood of eggs during the mouth of August. Prof. James M. DeGarmo has a nearly perfect albino, taken at Rhinebeck, on the Hudson.

Dimensions. Average measurements of twenty-five specimens : length, 6-30; stretch, 8-57; wing, 2*52; tail, 2 62 ; culmen, *49; tar- sus, -82; middle toe, -67; middle toe and its claw, *85.

82. Junco hyemalis {Linne). Eastern Snowbird. An abun- dant winter resident. Arrives in autumn about the end of September (30, 1874; October 12, 1875; September 28, 1876; October 18, 1879), and remains till May (1, 1873; 9, 1874; 8, 1875; 5, 1876; April 22, 1878; May 8, 1879; April 23, 1880). It breeds plentifully in the Catskill Mountains, and doubtless on the Shawangunk range in Orange County, N. Y. Mr. Win. Church Osborn found it at Lake Mohonk, Ulster County, N. Y., iu July, 1877. The SuowUird sings very sweetly before leaving us in the spring.

Dimensions. Average measurements of twenty-four specimens : length, 6 27; stretch, 9-78; wing, 3 03; tail, 2-71; culmen, *41; tar- sus, '81; middle toe and its claw, *72.

83. Spizella montana {Forster). Tree Sparrow. A very abundant winter resident. Arrives from the North about the end of October (31, 1874; 30, 1876; November 7, 1877; October 26, 1878; November 17 [or earlier], 1879), and departs in April (29, 1874; 29, 1875; 29, 1876; 13, 1877; March 28, 1878; April 28, 1879; April 8, 1880). In the spring it has a very agreeable song, ending in a loud trill. Its food, in winter, consists largely of the seeds of alder and birch.

Dimensions. Average measurements of twenty-eight specimens : length, 6 -30; stretch, 9 46